List of Education Schemes in India Useful for UGC NET/IAS/PCS/SSC/BANK PO/SSI/CTET

  1. Sarva  Shiksha  Abhiyan  ( SSA)-2001
  2. Right to Education ( RTE), 2009

Free education for 6 to 14 yes of child by RTE act 2009

RTE effective from 1 April 2010

2 – National Program of Mid Day Meal School

450 calories of energy & protein content of 12 grams is for primary stage

700 calories of energy & protein content of 20 grams at upper primary stage and other iron, vitamin A or folic acid also recommend in line of ( NRHM)

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3- Rashtriya Madhyamic Shiksha Abhiyan –2009

4-Sarv Siksha Abhiyan -2001

5- Sakshar Bharat – 2009

6- Operation Black board – 1987

7-National literary Mission –1988

8-Agenda- 21

It refer to 21st century, is a 300 page document over 40 chapters, grouped in 4 agreement

United Nation Development Program (UNDP)-Human Development Report (HDR) -2016

(Based on total -188 countries)

Theme: Human Development for Everyone

Rank: India -131 rank and Score is 0.624 in 2016   (130 rank in 2015)

Note: India was placed in medium human dev elopement category

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Top  3 countries :    1 rank  Norway ( 0.949)  2 rank Australia ( o.939)  3 rank  Switzerland  ( 0.939)

Top SAARC Countries:  Sri Lanka (73 rank) 2- Maldives (105 rank) both come under high Human Development category, India (131 rank), Bhutan ( 132 rank), Bangladesh (139 rank),  Nepal( 144 rank) Pakistan (147 rank)  and Afghanistan  (169 rank)

Top BRICS countries:  Russia (49 rank), Brazil (79 rank), China (90 rank) and South Africa (119 rank)

Life Expectancy at birth: India (68.3 Average where 69.9 years for women 66.9 years for men)

Access to Knowledge: Mean year of schooling – 6.3 years

Expected year of schooling-11.7 years

India GNI on PPP (Purchasing Power Parity): $ 5,663

Gender inequality Index: 125th out of 159 countries and Ratio of Maternal mortality is 174 out of 100,000 births

Indian Polity :

Battle of Plassy  – -1757

Battle of Buxer —1764

1765: Company get the Diwani rights (  ie. right over revenue and Justice )

M.N Roy: A pioneer of communist movement in India and an advocate of Radical Democrat ism  in 1934.

1935: INC First time officially demanded C.A (Constituent Assembly) to frame the Indian constitution.

A constituent assembly was formed in 1946 and Constitution came in to being fully on 26 Jan 1950. It was partially come in to being 26 November 1949 .

Company Rule (1773 -1858)

a- Regulating Act 1773 –

1- It recognized the first time political and administrator function of company .

2- Governor of Bengal  became Governor General of Bengal.

3- Set up executive council of 4 member .

4-Lord Warren Hasting became first Governor General .

5- Governor of Bombay & Madras became subordinate to Governor General of Bengal.

6- Supreme court is established in 1774. It consist of 4 Judge (  1-chief justice & 3- Judge)

7- Prohibited  the company servant to have trade and bribes from the natives.

8- Appointment of Court of Director (COD) which will report to British government about all revenues, civil & military affairs. This was a major step towards snatching the power of the company .

b- Pitts India Act 1784 –

1- Known as Act of Settlement an effort to rectify the previous Act  1773 , 1781.

2- Initiated double government i.e  COD & BOC.

COD   (Court of Director )  – Commercial function

BOC  ( Board of control )   -Political function and will look after civil military & revenue attains.

3- For the first time company territory was known as a British possession in India

 c- Charter Act 1813 – 

1 – Trade monopoly of the Company came to an end except in tea in India and trade with china .

2- The Christian missionaries were allowed to spread their religion in India

3- Local autonomous bodies were allowed to levy taxes.

d – Charter – Act  1833 –

1- Final step towards the centralization.

2- Ended company monopoly even in tea and trade with china .

3- Governor General of Bengal became the Governor General of India .

4- Lord William Bentick becomes first Governor of India. He was wasted with all power (civil military & legislative)

5- Deprived the Governor of Bombay & Madras for their legislative power from now new laws will be called Act & all old lows will be provisions.

6- It ended the company Activities  as a commercial body which is now just administrative body .

It provided that company territory in India and in just trust for his majesty heir & its successor.

7- Open competition for civil servant but it was negated after the opposition from court of Director .

e – Charter Act 1853 —

1-   It separated first time legislative and executive function of Governor General.

2- Provided new member, called legislative Councilors also known as (LC).

3- Legislative wing is like a mini parliament.

4- Open competition system for civil services.

5- Macaulay committee was constituted on civil services in 1854.

6- Extended the rule of company without any time limit unlike earlier.

7- Introduced first time local representation in C.L.C.

8- Of 6 member of C L C, 4 member were appointed by provincial  ( local )  government of  Madras, Bombay, Bengal & Agra .

The Crown Rule   (1858–1947)

1- Govt of India Act 1858 – Highly  centralized structure .

2- Act for good governance for India .

3- Viceroy of India replaced Governor General as a direct representative of British .

4- Lord canning first viceroy of India .

5- Ended the double Govt  (B O D / COD ).

6- Created  now office secretary of state (complete authority ).

7- 15 Member council of India to assist secretary ( member of British cabinet),

8- Secretary of state in council as a body of corporate capable of suing & being sued in India and Britain .


After Revolt 1861, 1892, 1909 Council Act seeks Cooperation Form India

Indian Council Act  1861 :  

First time Indian associated with law making process: Nominated by viceroy as a non official member .

1862: ‘3’ Indian to his legislation council .

1- Raja of Benaras

2- Sir Dinkar  Rao

3- Maharaja of Patiyala

It initiated the process of decentralization by restoring the legislative process to Bombay & Madras presidency. It thus reversed the centralizing tendency which started from 1773 & reached it climax in 1833.

This policy of legislative devolution resulted in grant of almost complete internal autonomous to the province in 1937.

This also gave a recognition to the portfolio system in introduced by lord Canning in 1859.

Ordinance making power to Viceroy which remains for 6 months .

It provided establishment of new legislative council for Bengal (1862 ), N W F P (1866 ) Punjab( 1897).

Indian Council  Act  1892 ;

Increased no of additional (non official) member In CLC & PLC but maintained the majority of official members.

Increased function of PLC to discuss budget & address the questions.

Nomination of non official member in CLC by Viceroy on recommendation of P L C & Bengal chamber of commerce and non official member for P L C  by Governor  on the recommendation of district Board municipalities, Universities and Zamidar etc.,

Indirect provision of election: Initially called nomination on the recommendation of certain bodies .

Note –

1- Charter Act 1853 —- 6    member added

2- Indian Council Act 1861 ——-3    member added

3- Indian Council Act 1892 ——–7 member added

Indian Council Act 1909 – 

Morley Minto Reform ( Minto – Viceroy ,  Morley – Secretary )

It increases size of C L C / P L C ( 16-60  )

C L C has official majority while not in P L C

First time, Satyendra Prasad  Sinha  joined viceroy  executive council ( Appointed as law member )

Introduced a system of communal representation for Muslim by accepting the concept of separate electorate. Under  this, The Muslim members were to be elected only by Muslim voters .

LORD  MINTO recognized as a father of communal electorate.

Now member ask supplementary questions on budget .

It also provided for separate representation of Presidency corporation, Chamber of commerce, Universites and Zamidar.

Government of India Act 1919; 

Montague -Reform (Secretary: Chelmford  Viceroy: Montague )

Relaxed central control over Provinces.

It authorized to make laws for their subjects (center list state/provincial list ) however government was centralized .

Provincial subject  / state subject: Law made by PLC

Transferred Subject ; Law made by Governor General with aid & advice of Ministers.

Reserved Subject ; Law made by Governor General without responsible to legislative assembly .

Dual Scheme (Diarchy ) – Introduced but not successful

First time bicameralism & direct election in country.


Our Constitution : Our present constitution – The first constitution of India framed and given to themselves by the people of India was Adopted by the constituent assembly on 26 November 1949 This t came into full operation with effect from 26 January 1950.

The constitution as originally adopted had 22 parts 395 articles and 8 schedules.


Administrative & Legislative Reforms Before 1857


Regulating Act of 1773 

  • The Act was based on the report of a committee headed by the british prime minister lord North
  • A supreme court was established in Calcutta ( now Kolkata )
  • Governor general was empowered to make rules regulations and ordinances with the consent of the supreme court
  • The governor of Bengal was nominated as governor general for all the three presidencies of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. Warren Hastings was the first such governor general.


Important Articles of the Constitution


Part- 1          Art -.1-4                             The union and its territory

Part -2        Art-  5-11                             Citizenship

Part -3         Fundamental  Rights

Art – 12     Definition

Art – 13     Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights

Right to equality 

Art – 14    Equality before law

Art  – 15      Prohibition of  discrmination on grounds of religion race caste sex or place of birth

Art – 16         Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment

Art – 17          Abolition of untouchability

Art  -18          Abolition of titles


 Right to Freedom

Art  -19          Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech etc

Art – 20          Protection in respect of conviction for offences

Art – 21         Protection of life and personal liberty

21 A                Right to education

Art – 22            Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases

Right against Exploitation

Art  – 23             Prohibition  of traffic in human beings and forced labour

Art – 24              Prohibition of employment of children in factories etc

Right to Freedom of Religion

Art – 25              Freedom of conscience and free profession practice and propagation of religion

Art – 26            Freedom to manage religious affairs

Art – 27             Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion

Art – 28               Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions

Cultural and Educational Rights

Art – 29  Protection of interests of minorities

Art – 30  Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions



Harappan/Indus Civilization (2500 BC- 1750 BC):

A. The oldest name is Indus Valley Civilization

B. Harappa – The first discovered site

c. Indus Saraswati river valley: 80% settlement along the Saraswati

d. John marshall was the first scholar to use the term Indus civilization

e- The Indus civilization was spread over sindh baluchistan punjab , Haryana , Rajasthan ,Gujarat ,Western U.P and northern maharashtra.

f- Scholars generally believe that harappa- ghaggar – mohenjodaro axis represents the heartland of the Indus civilization

g- The northern -most site of Indus civilization -Ropar ( sutlej ) /punjab ( earlier ) manda ( chenab) jammu -kashmir ( now)

h- The eastern -most site of Indus civilzation —alamgirpur (hindon /uttar pradesh

Capital Cities —–Harappa  Mohenjodaro

Port Cities —Lothal  sutkagendor  allahdino Balakot  kuntasi


Site River StateProvince Country Excavators
Harappa Ravi Punjab Pakistan Daya ram sahni (1921) madho swaroop vatsa (1926 ) wheeler (1946)

(Nakhlistan i.e oasis of sindh )

Indus Sindh Pakistan Rakhal das bannerji( 1922) Mackay( 1927 ) wheeler (1930)
Chanhudaro Indus Sindh Pakistan Mackay (1925) N.G Mazumdar (1931)
Lothal Bhogava Gujarat India S.R. Rao (1954)
Kalibanga         ( i.e the bangles of black colour) Ghaggar Rajasthan India Amalanand ghosh( 1951) B.V. LAL AND b.k. thapar( 1961)
Banawali Ghaggar Haryana India R .S .bist (1973)
Dholavira Luni Gujarat India J. P .Joshi (1967 -68)


Indian Polity

Important Articles of the Constitution 

                          Articles                                                                          Subject

Part- 1          Art -.1-4                             The union and its territory 

Part -2        Art-  5-11                             Citizenship 

Part -3         Fundamental  Rights 

Art – 12     Definition

Art – 13     Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights

Right to equality  

Art – 14    Equality before law

Art  – 15      Prohibition of  discrmination on grounds of religion race caste sex or place of birth

Art – 16         Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment

Art – 17          Abolition of untouchability

Art  -18          Abolition of titles

  Right to Freedom 

Art  -19          Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech etc

Art – 20          Protection in respect of conviction for offences

Art – 21         Protection of life and personal liberty

21 A                Right to education

Art – 22            Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases

Right against Exploitation

Art  – 23             Prhibition  of traffic in human beings and forced labour

Art – 24              Prhibition of employment of children in factories etc

Right to Freedom of Religion

Art – 25              Freedom of conscience and  free profession practice and propagation of religion

Art – 26            Freedom to manage religious affairs

Art – 27             Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion

Art – 28               Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions

Cultural and Educational Rights

Art – 29  Protection of interests of minoriyies

Art – 30  Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions






Origin of Universe –  

universe — 15 -20 billion year old

earth — 4– 5 billion year old

human being evolved – 2 million year old

Earth is one of the eight planet orbiting around the sun. Sun is about 150 million KM far from earth. Earth, other planets, stars (galaxies) form the universe.

There are also countless asteroids & comets in orbit around  the sun. it may be seen by telescope.

Planets distance from Sun-

Just for learn –   My Very Efficient Mother Just Serve Us Nut.

Difference Between Asteroids & Comets –

Asteroids are rockier and more metallic while comets tend to be icer. Both asteroids  & comets are made during earliest  history of solar system,  around 4.5 billion years ago, Asteroids are near the sun so it is much hot while comets  are far from the sun so it is iced but when it is near the sun it forms a tail like structure due to vaporization  of its comets.  While such vaporization is very rare in asteroids. Another difference is comets is very extended & elongated while asteroids are small & circular in structure.

Origin of the universe & origin of earth –

1–Big bang theory is most accepted. According to this theory universe  started with a huge explosion and matter( dust & gases ) filled the entire space. Temperature that time was about 100 billion degree celcious

2–It is believed that this big bang occurred about 15 -20 billion years ago the huge collection of dust & gases then began to spin. As it spun faster faster became very hot. It become sun & from the edges chunk of dust broke out & form 8 ball shaped planets & finally solar system occurred.

3-Earth broke out about 4.5 billion years ago with an explosion. It was a burning hot white mass of gas & dust over a long period of time. Dust & Gases gradually condensed & solid rock occurred due to condensation and shrinking it become very hot. As result rock melted into a gluey liquid. After million of year ago the outer surface cooled & again formed a hard rock just as melted chock-lets.  The interior is very hot still

4. Cooling the earth crust hardens and formed the land. Cooling of the earth also condensed water vapor into liquid water filling the depression formed the sea.

Classification of planets 

1- The eight planets have bee divided into tow groups all the planets of a particular group have some common features terrestrial planets or rocky planets and jovian planets or gaseous planets are the tow groups of planets

2- The four planets nearest to the sun – mercury venus earth and mars are called terestrial planets because their structure is similar to the earth

3- Other four planets —jupiter, saturn  uranus and neptune are called jovian planets

4- Planets are classified into the following tow groups inner and outer planets these are separated by asteroid belt


1- The include mercury venus earth mars

2- They are nearer to the sun

3- The are made up of dense metallic minerals

4- They move faster and have a shorter period of revolution

5- They have thin rocky crust

6- They have a mantle rich in iron and made of gases magnesium

7- They have a core of molten metals

8- They have thin atmosphere

9- They have very few natural satellites or no satellites


1- They include jupiter saturn uranus neptune etc

2- They are far away from the sun

3- They are made up of hot gases mainly hydrogen and helium

4- They move rather slowly and have a longer  period of revolution

5- They are all gaseous bodies

6- They have ring systems around them

7- They have a large number of natural satellites


1- Universe:

(a)The universe is commonly defined as the totality of everything that exists including all physical matter and energy the planets stars galaxies and the contents of intergalactic space

(b)The study of universe is known as Cosmology .

Cosmology = cosmos   ( universe ) + logos ( science)

(c)The universe has no limit

2- Galaxy:

(a) A galaxy is vast system of billions of staes which also contains a large number of gas clouds and dust isolated in space from similar systems .

(b) The milky way  galaxy is the home of the earth and our solar system it is spiral in shape .

(c) Latest known galaxy is the Dwarf Galaxy .

(d) Origin of the universe is explained by the Big Bang Theory formulated and proposed by the belgian astronomer and cosmologist Georges Lemaitre .

3- The Big Bang Theory;

(a) Big bang was an explosion that occurred  15 billion years ago leading to the formation of galaxies of stars and other heavenly bodies

4- Star:

(a) Stars are made of hot burning gases

(b) Light takes about 4.3 years to reach us from the next nearest star Proxima centauri.

5-The solar system