Battle of Plassy – -1757
Battle of Buxer —1764
1765: Company get the Diwani rights ( ie. right over revenue and Justice )
M.N Roy: A pioneer of communist movement in India and an advocate of Radical Democrat ism in 1934.
1935: INC First time officially demanded C.A (Constituent Assembly) to frame the Indian constitution.
A constituent assembly was formed in 1946 and Constitution came in to being fully on 26 Jan 1950. It was partially come in to being 26 November 1949 .
Company Rule (1773 -1858)
a- Regulating Act 1773 –
1- It recognized the first time political and administrator function of company .
2- Governor of Bengal became Governor General of Bengal.
3- Set up executive council of 4 member .
4-Lord Warren Hasting became first Governor General .
5- Governor of Bombay & Madras became subordinate to Governor General of Bengal.
6- Supreme court is established in 1774. It consist of 4 Judge ( 1-chief justice & 3- Judge)
7- Prohibited the company servant to have trade and bribes from the natives.
8- Appointment of Court of Director (COD) which will report to British government about all revenues, civil & military affairs. This was a major step towards snatching the power of the company .
b- Pitts India Act 1784 –
1- Known as Act of Settlement an effort to rectify the previous Act 1773 , 1781.
2- Initiated double government i.e COD & BOC.
COD (Court of Director ) – Commercial function
BOC ( Board of control ) -Political function and will look after civil military & revenue attains.
3- For the first time company territory was known as a British possession in India
c- Charter Act 1813 –
1 – Trade monopoly of the Company came to an end except in tea in India and trade with china .
2- The Christian missionaries were allowed to spread their religion in India
3- Local autonomous bodies were allowed to levy taxes.
d – Charter – Act 1833 –
1- Final step towards the centralization.
2- Ended company monopoly even in tea and trade with china .
3- Governor General of Bengal became the Governor General of India .
4- Lord William Bentick becomes first Governor of India. He was wasted with all power (civil military & legislative)
5- Deprived the Governor of Bombay & Madras for their legislative power from now new laws will be called Act & all old lows will be provisions.
6- It ended the company Activities as a commercial body which is now just administrative body .
It provided that company territory in India and in just trust for his majesty heir & its successor.
7- Open competition for civil servant but it was negated after the opposition from court of Director .
e – Charter Act 1853 —
1- It separated first time legislative and executive function of Governor General.
2- Provided new member, called legislative Councilors also known as (LC).
3- Legislative wing is like a mini parliament.
4- Open competition system for civil services.
5- Macaulay committee was constituted on civil services in 1854.
6- Extended the rule of company without any time limit unlike earlier.
7- Introduced first time local representation in C.L.C.
8- Of 6 member of C L C, 4 member were appointed by provincial ( local ) government of Madras, Bombay, Bengal & Agra .
The Crown Rule (1858–1947)
1- Govt of India Act 1858 – Highly centralized structure .
2- Act for good governance for India .
3- Viceroy of India replaced Governor General as a direct representative of British .
4- Lord canning first viceroy of India .
5- Ended the double Govt (B O D / COD ).
6- Created now office secretary of state (complete authority ).
7- 15 Member council of India to assist secretary ( member of British cabinet),
8- Secretary of state in council as a body of corporate capable of suing & being sued in India and Britain .
After Revolt 1861, 1892, 1909 Council Act seeks Cooperation Form India
Indian Council Act 1861 :
First time Indian associated with law making process: Nominated by viceroy as a non official member .
1862: ‘3’ Indian to his legislation council .
1- Raja of Benaras
2- Sir Dinkar Rao
3- Maharaja of Patiyala
It initiated the process of decentralization by restoring the legislative process to Bombay & Madras presidency. It thus reversed the centralizing tendency which started from 1773 & reached it climax in 1833.
This policy of legislative devolution resulted in grant of almost complete internal autonomous to the province in 1937.
This also gave a recognition to the portfolio system in introduced by lord Canning in 1859.
Ordinance making power to Viceroy which remains for 6 months .
It provided establishment of new legislative council for Bengal (1862 ), N W F P (1866 ) Punjab( 1897).
Indian Council Act 1892 ;
Increased no of additional (non official) member In CLC & PLC but maintained the majority of official members.
Increased function of PLC to discuss budget & address the questions.
Nomination of non official member in CLC by Viceroy on recommendation of P L C & Bengal chamber of commerce and non official member for P L C by Governor on the recommendation of district Board municipalities, Universities and Zamidar etc.,
Indirect provision of election: Initially called nomination on the recommendation of certain bodies .
1- Charter Act 1853 —- 6 member added
2- Indian Council Act 1861 ——-3 member added
3- Indian Council Act 1892 ——–7 member added
Indian Council Act 1909 –
Morley Minto Reform ( Minto – Viceroy , Morley – Secretary )
It increases size of C L C / P L C ( 16-60 )
C L C has official majority while not in P L C
First time, Satyendra Prasad Sinha joined viceroy executive council ( Appointed as law member )
Introduced a system of communal representation for Muslim by accepting the concept of separate electorate. Under this, The Muslim members were to be elected only by Muslim voters .
LORD MINTO recognized as a father of communal electorate.
Now member ask supplementary questions on budget .
It also provided for separate representation of Presidency corporation, Chamber of commerce, Universites and Zamidar.
Government of India Act 1919;
Montague -Reform (Secretary: Chelmford Viceroy: Montague )
Relaxed central control over Provinces.
It authorized to make laws for their subjects (center list state/provincial list ) however government was centralized .
Provincial subject / state subject: Law made by PLC
Transferred Subject ; Law made by Governor General with aid & advice of Ministers.
Reserved Subject ; Law made by Governor General without responsible to legislative assembly .
Dual Scheme (Diarchy ) – Introduced but not successful
First time bicameralism & direct election in country.
Our Constitution : Our present constitution – The first constitution of India framed and given to themselves by the people of India was Adopted by the constituent assembly on 26 November 1949 This t came into full operation with effect from 26 January 1950.
The constitution as originally adopted had 22 parts 395 articles and 8 schedules.
Administrative & Legislative Reforms Before 1857
Regulating Act of 1773
- The Act was based on the report of a committee headed by the british prime minister lord North
- A supreme court was established in Calcutta ( now Kolkata )
- Governor general was empowered to make rules regulations and ordinances with the consent of the supreme court
- The governor of Bengal was nominated as governor general for all the three presidencies of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. Warren Hastings was the first such governor general.
Important Articles of the Constitution
Part- 1 Art -.1-4 The union and its territory
Part -2 Art- 5-11 Citizenship
Part -3 Fundamental Rights
Art – 12 Definition
Art – 13 Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights
Right to equality
Art – 14 Equality before law
Art – 15 Prohibition of discrmination on grounds of religion race caste sex or place of birth
Art – 16 Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment
Art – 17 Abolition of untouchability
Art -18 Abolition of titles
Right to Freedom
Art -19 Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech etc
Art – 20 Protection in respect of conviction for offences
Art – 21 Protection of life and personal liberty
21 A Right to education
Art – 22 Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases
Right against Exploitation
Art – 23 Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour
Art – 24 Prohibition of employment of children in factories etc
Right to Freedom of Religion
Art – 25 Freedom of conscience and free profession practice and propagation of religion
Art – 26 Freedom to manage religious affairs
Art – 27 Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion
Art – 28 Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions
Cultural and Educational Rights
Art – 29 Protection of interests of minorities
Art – 30 Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions