History

Harappan/Indus Civilization (2500 BC- 1750 BC):

A. The oldest name is Indus Valley Civilization

B. Harappa – The first discovered site

c. Indus Saraswati river valley: 80% settlement along the Saraswati

d. John marshall was the first scholar to use the term Indus civilization

e- The Indus civilization was spread over sindh baluchistan punjab , Haryana , Rajasthan ,Gujarat ,Western U.P and northern maharashtra.

f- Scholars generally believe that harappa- ghaggar – mohenjodaro axis represents the heartland of the Indus civilization

g- The northern -most site of Indus civilization -Ropar ( sutlej ) /punjab ( earlier ) manda ( chenab) jammu -kashmir ( now)

h- The eastern -most site of Indus civilzation —alamgirpur (hindon /uttar pradesh

Capital Cities —–Harappa  Mohenjodaro

Port Cities —Lothal  sutkagendor  allahdino Balakot  kuntasi



 

Site River StateProvince Country Excavators
Harappa Ravi Punjab Pakistan Daya ram sahni (1921) madho swaroop vatsa (1926 ) wheeler (1946)
Mohenjodaro

(Nakhlistan i.e oasis of sindh )

Indus Sindh Pakistan Rakhal das bannerji( 1922) Mackay( 1927 ) wheeler (1930)
Chanhudaro Indus Sindh Pakistan Mackay (1925) N.G Mazumdar (1931)
Lothal Bhogava Gujarat India S.R. Rao (1954)
Kalibanga         ( i.e the bangles of black colour) Ghaggar Rajasthan India Amalanand ghosh( 1951) B.V. LAL AND b.k. thapar( 1961)
Banawali Ghaggar Haryana India R .S .bist (1973)
Dholavira Luni Gujarat India J. P .Joshi (1967 -68)