Indian Polity :

Battle of Plassy  – -1757

Battle of Buxer —1764

1765: Company get the Diwani rights (  ie. right over revenue and Justice )

M.N Roy: A pioneer of communist movement in India and an advocate of Radical Democrat ism  in 1934.

1935: INC First time officially demanded C.A (Constituent Assembly) to frame the Indian constitution.

A constituent assembly was formed in 1946 and Constitution came in to being fully on 26 Jan 1950. It was partially come in to being 26 November 1949 .




Company Rule (1773 -1858)

a- Regulating Act 1773 –

1- It recognized the first time political and administrator function of company .

2- Governor of Bengal  became Governor General of Bengal.

3- Set up executive council of 4 member .

4-Lord Warren Hasting became first Governor General .

5- Governor of Bombay & Madras became subordinate to Governor General of Bengal.

6- Supreme court is established in 1774. It consist of 4 Judge (  1-chief justice & 3- Judge)

7- Prohibited  the company servant to have trade and bribes from the natives.

8- Appointment of Court of Director (COD) which will report to British government about all revenues, civil & military affairs. This was a major step towards snatching the power of the company .

b- Pitts India Act 1784 –

1- Known as Act of Settlement an effort to rectify the previous Act  1773 , 1781.

2- Initiated double government i.e  COD & BOC.

COD   (Court of Director )  – Commercial function

BOC  ( Board of control )   -Political function and will look after civil military & revenue attains.

3- For the first time company territory was known as a British possession in India

 c- Charter Act 1813 – 

1 – Trade monopoly of the Company came to an end except in tea in India and trade with china .




2- The Christian missionaries were allowed to spread their religion in India

3- Local autonomous bodies were allowed to levy taxes.

d – Charter – Act  1833 –

1- Final step towards the centralization.

2- Ended company monopoly even in tea and trade with china .

3- Governor General of Bengal became the Governor General of India .

4- Lord William Bentick becomes first Governor of India. He was wasted with all power (civil military & legislative)

5- Deprived the Governor of Bombay & Madras for their legislative power from now new laws will be called Act & all old lows will be provisions.

6- It ended the company Activities  as a commercial body which is now just administrative body .

It provided that company territory in India and in just trust for his majesty heir & its successor.

7- Open competition for civil servant but it was negated after the opposition from court of Director .

e – Charter Act 1853 —

1-   It separated first time legislative and executive function of Governor General.

2- Provided new member, called legislative Councilors also known as (LC).

3- Legislative wing is like a mini parliament.

4- Open competition system for civil services.

5- Macaulay committee was constituted on civil services in 1854.

6- Extended the rule of company without any time limit unlike earlier.

7- Introduced first time local representation in C.L.C.




8- Of 6 member of C L C, 4 member were appointed by provincial  ( local )  government of  Madras, Bombay, Bengal & Agra .

The Crown Rule   (1858–1947)

1- Govt of India Act 1858 – Highly  centralized structure .

2- Act for good governance for India .

3- Viceroy of India replaced Governor General as a direct representative of British .

4- Lord canning first viceroy of India .

5- Ended the double Govt  (B O D / COD ).

6- Created  now office secretary of state (complete authority ).

7- 15 Member council of India to assist secretary ( member of British cabinet),

8- Secretary of state in council as a body of corporate capable of suing & being sued in India and Britain .

 

After Revolt 1861, 1892, 1909 Council Act seeks Cooperation Form India

Indian Council Act  1861 :  

First time Indian associated with law making process: Nominated by viceroy as a non official member .

1862: ‘3’ Indian to his legislation council .

1- Raja of Benaras

2- Sir Dinkar  Rao

3- Maharaja of Patiyala

It initiated the process of decentralization by restoring the legislative process to Bombay & Madras presidency. It thus reversed the centralizing tendency which started from 1773 & reached it climax in 1833.

This policy of legislative devolution resulted in grant of almost complete internal autonomous to the province in 1937.

This also gave a recognition to the portfolio system in introduced by lord Canning in 1859.

Ordinance making power to Viceroy which remains for 6 months .

It provided establishment of new legislative council for Bengal (1862 ), N W F P (1866 ) Punjab( 1897).

Indian Council  Act  1892 ;

Increased no of additional (non official) member In CLC & PLC but maintained the majority of official members.

Increased function of PLC to discuss budget & address the questions.

Nomination of non official member in CLC by Viceroy on recommendation of P L C & Bengal chamber of commerce and non official member for P L C  by Governor  on the recommendation of district Board municipalities, Universities and Zamidar etc.,

Indirect provision of election: Initially called nomination on the recommendation of certain bodies .

Note –

1- Charter Act 1853 —- 6    member added

2- Indian Council Act 1861 ——-3    member added

3- Indian Council Act 1892 ——–7 member added

Indian Council Act 1909 – 

Morley Minto Reform ( Minto – Viceroy ,  Morley – Secretary )

It increases size of C L C / P L C ( 16-60  )

C L C has official majority while not in P L C

First time, Satyendra Prasad  Sinha  joined viceroy  executive council ( Appointed as law member )

Introduced a system of communal representation for Muslim by accepting the concept of separate electorate. Under  this, The Muslim members were to be elected only by Muslim voters .

LORD  MINTO recognized as a father of communal electorate.

Now member ask supplementary questions on budget .




It also provided for separate representation of Presidency corporation, Chamber of commerce, Universites and Zamidar.

Government of India Act 1919; 

Montague -Reform (Secretary: Chelmford  Viceroy: Montague )

Relaxed central control over Provinces.

It authorized to make laws for their subjects (center list state/provincial list ) however government was centralized .

Provincial subject  / state subject: Law made by PLC

Transferred Subject ; Law made by Governor General with aid & advice of Ministers.

Reserved Subject ; Law made by Governor General without responsible to legislative assembly .

Dual Scheme (Diarchy ) – Introduced but not successful

First time bicameralism & direct election in country.

 

Our Constitution : Our present constitution – The first constitution of India framed and given to themselves by the people of India was Adopted by the constituent assembly on 26 November 1949 This t came into full operation with effect from 26 January 1950.

The constitution as originally adopted had 22 parts 395 articles and 8 schedules.

 

Administrative & Legislative Reforms Before 1857

 

Regulating Act of 1773 

  • The Act was based on the report of a committee headed by the british prime minister lord North
  • A supreme court was established in Calcutta ( now Kolkata )
  • Governor general was empowered to make rules regulations and ordinances with the consent of the supreme court
  • The governor of Bengal was nominated as governor general for all the three presidencies of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. Warren Hastings was the first such governor general.

 

Important Articles of the Constitution

Articles

Part- 1          Art -.1-4                             The union and its territory

Part -2        Art-  5-11                             Citizenship

Part -3         Fundamental  Rights

Art – 12     Definition

Art – 13     Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights

Right to equality 

Art – 14    Equality before law

Art  – 15      Prohibition of  discrmination on grounds of religion race caste sex or place of birth

Art – 16         Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment

Art – 17          Abolition of untouchability

Art  -18          Abolition of titles

 

 Right to Freedom

Art  -19          Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech etc

Art – 20          Protection in respect of conviction for offences

Art – 21         Protection of life and personal liberty

21 A                Right to education

Art – 22            Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases

Right against Exploitation

Art  – 23             Prohibition  of traffic in human beings and forced labour

Art – 24              Prohibition of employment of children in factories etc

Right to Freedom of Religion

Art – 25              Freedom of conscience and free profession practice and propagation of religion

Art – 26            Freedom to manage religious affairs




Art – 27             Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion

Art – 28               Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions

Cultural and Educational Rights

Art – 29  Protection of interests of minorities

Art – 30  Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions

 

Indian Polity

Important Articles of the Constitution 

                          Articles                                                                          Subject

Part- 1          Art -.1-4                             The union and its territory 

Part -2        Art-  5-11                             Citizenship 

Part -3         Fundamental  Rights 

Art – 12     Definition

Art – 13     Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights

Right to equality  

Art – 14    Equality before law



Art  – 15      Prohibition of  discrmination on grounds of religion race caste sex or place of birth

Art – 16         Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment

Art – 17          Abolition of untouchability

Art  -18          Abolition of titles

  Right to Freedom 

Art  -19          Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech etc

Art – 20          Protection in respect of conviction for offences

Art – 21         Protection of life and personal liberty

21 A                Right to education

Art – 22            Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases

Right against Exploitation

Art  – 23             Prhibition  of traffic in human beings and forced labour

Art – 24              Prhibition of employment of children in factories etc

Right to Freedom of Religion

Art – 25              Freedom of conscience and  free profession practice and propagation of religion



Art – 26            Freedom to manage religious affairs

Art – 27             Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion

Art – 28               Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions

Cultural and Educational Rights

Art – 29  Protection of interests of minoriyies

Art – 30  Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions

 

 

 

 

Indian Polity

Our constitution : Our present constitution – The first constitution of India framed and given to themselves by the people of India was Abopted by the constituent assembly on 26 November 1949 Lt came into full operation with effect from 26 January 1950 the constitution as originally abopted had 22 parts 395 articles and 8 schedules lts present text is as amended from time to time

Administrative & Legislative Reforms Before 1857 Regulating Act of 1773 

(a) The Act was based on the report of a committee headed by the british prime minister lord North




(b) Asupreme court was established in calcutta ( now Kolkata )

(c) Governor general was empowered to make rules regulations and ordinances with the consent of the supreme court




(d)The governor of bengal was nominated as governor general for all the three presidencies of calcutta bombay and madras warren hastings was the first such governor general