Power, Politics, Conflict:

Power, Politics, Conflict:

Organisations are complex, and there are several issues that we have to address in managing them well. Power, politics, conflict are interrelated issues.

  1. Power

Formal power

Coercive power – A manager can coerce a person on the threat of warning, cutting of pay, holding of promotions, etc.

Reward power – A manager can reward a person and therefore, he gains power over the subordinates because the subordinate is willing to accept the orders of the manager to gain the reward.

Legitimate power – This comes because of the position and the belief that some things are supposed to be done when told by a person in that position.

Information power – This is derived from access to and control over information.

Personal power

Expert power – Here, a person is able to control or influence another person because of possessing knowledge, experience, or judgment that the other person lacks, but needs.

Rational persuasion – Rational persuasion is the ability to control another’s behavior by using logical arguments.

Referent power – Referent power refers to the ability of a leader to influence a follower because of the follower’s loyalty, respect, friendship, admiration, affection, or a desire to gain approval.

Charismatic power – Charismatic power is based on the leader’s exceptional personal qualities or the demonstration of extraordinary insight and accomplishment, which inspire loyalty and obedience from the followers.


Organisational politics refers to the use and manipulation of situations, power, and people to secure their position and gain from the situation. It may be done by letting others down and by increasing their own power, image, and status within the organisation. The results or the benefits can be tangible or intangible, depending upon the situation.


Groups are opposing each other with mutually opposing actions and counter actions

Each group attempts to create a relatively favoured position vis-a-vis the other

Types of Conflict

Conflict can be classified in many ways. Some of the classifications are discussed below:

Based on utility of conflict

The traditional view is that all conflicts are dysfunctional and hinders performance. The human relations view believes that conflict is a natural occurrence in all groups and organisations that it cannot be eliminated and may even contribute to group performance.

Outcomes of Conflict              Positive Negative
1. Leads to new ideas 1.


Diverts energy from work
2. Stimulates creativity 2.


Threatens psychological well-being
3. Motivates change 3.


Wastes resources
4. Promotes organizational vitality 4.


Creates a negative climate


5. Helps individuals and groups establish identities 5.


Breaks down group cohesion
6. Serves as a safety valve to indicate problems 6. Can increase hostility and aggressive behaviours

Source: SMU 

Based on choice

Based on choice we have:

Approach – approach conflict which occurs when a person must choose between two positive and equally attractive alternatives. For example, choosing between a valued promotion in the organisation and a desirable new job with another firm.

Avoidance – avoidance conflict which occurs when a person must choose between two negative and equally unattractive alternatives. For example, being asked either to accept a job transfer to another town in an undesirable location or to have one’s employment with an organisation terminated.


Based on parties involved

Conflict can be intrapersonal (within the person) and no others are involved or Interpersonal. Let us now discuss these two types of conflicts in detail.

 Intrapersonal – A person may suffer intrapersonal conflict for various reasons. They are:

Cognitive conflict – An intellectual discomfort created by trying to achieve incompatible goals.

Affective conflict – Occurs when emotions are incompatible with the goals. For example, the need to smile at the customers after a sad event at home.

Inter-role conflict – Occurs when a person experiences conflict among the multiple roles in his or her life. For example, role of a mother and role of an executive secretary who gets home late or role of a union leader supported by the management and the role to defend a worker from abuse of the management.

Intra-role conflict – This is conflict within a single role. It often arises when a person receives conflicting message from role senders (the individuals who place expectations on the person) about how to perform a certain role. For example, the company policy defines high standards of ethics but the role occupant is asked by the manager to offer a bribe to get a sanction.

Person-role conflict – Occurs when an individual in a particular role is expected to perform behaviours that clash with his or her values. For example, salespeople may be officially required to offer the most expensive item in the sales line first to the customer, even when it is apparent that the customer does not want or cannot afford the item. This may conflict with the salesperson’s values or past experience, and he or she may experience person-role conflict.

Inter-individual or interpersonal conflict – When two individuals disagree about issues, actions, or goals and the outcomes are important to both, there is inter-individual conflict.

 Managing Conflict

There are five styles of managing conflict.


Conflict-handling Style


Appropriate Situation

Competing 1. When quick, decisive action is vital (e.g., emergencies).

2. On important issues where unpopular actions need implementing (e.g., cost cutting, enforcing unpopular rules, discipline).

3. On issues vital to company welfare when you know you are right.

4. Against people who take advantage of non-competitive behaviour.

Collaborating 1. To find an integrative solution when both sets of concerns are too important to be compromised.

2. When your objective is to learn.

3. To merge insights from people with different perspectives.

4. To gain commitment by incorporating concerns into a consensus.

5. To work through feelings that have interfered with a relationship.

Compromising 1. When goals are important but not worth the effort or potential disruption of more assertive modes.

2. When opponents with equal power are committed to mutually exclusive goals.

3. To achieve temporary settlements to complex issues.

4. To arrive at expedient solutions under time pressure.

5. 14. As a backup when collaboration or competition is unsuccessful.


Avoiding 1. When an issue is trivial or more important issues are pressing.

2. When you perceive no chance of satisfying your concerns.

3. When potential disruption outweighs the benefits of resolution.

4. To let people cool down and regain perspective.

5. When others can resolve the conflict more effectively.

6. When issues seem tangential or symptomatic of other issues.

Accommodating 1. When you find you are wrong to allow a better position to be heard, to learn, and to show your reasonableness.

2. When issues are more important to others than to you to satisfy others and maintain cooperation.

3. To build social credits for later issues.

4. To minimise loss when you are outmatched and losing.

5. When harmony and stability are especially important.

6. To allow employees to develop by learning from mistakes.

Source: SMU


Organisation Behaviour: MCQ

Question 1 A common definition of Organisational Behaviour is that it is the study of:

A- Patterns of organisational structure

B- Group behaviour

C- Individual behaviour

D- All of the above


Question 2.

Which of the following is not part of the basic framework for analysing Organisational Behaviour issues?

a-The process of management

B-Organisational context

C-Gender and ethnic differences

 D-Behaviour of people

Question 3.

The four main dimensions which influence behaviour in work organisations are:

A-Individual, organisation, group, gender

B-Individual, group, organisation, environment

C-Group, environment, organisation, gender

D-Environment, group, individual, gender

Question 4.

The main contribution of psychology to Organisational Behaviour is the study of:

A-Personality, attitudes, perceptions and motives

B-Social structures and relationships

C Social beliefs, customs and values

D-Philosophy and ethics of human activity

Question 5.

According to Morgan metaphors can be used to view an organization. These metaphors _____________

A-Provide a broader view of the dynamics or organisational behaviour

B- All of the above

C-Define work as a central life issue

D-Are instruments of domination

Question 6.

Which of the following is not an influence on behaviour in work organisations?

A-The environment

B-The individual

C-The group

D-The building

Question 7.

The psychological contract is:

A-The match between individual and organisational expectations

B- The changing relationship between staff and manager

C-The basis for performance management

D-A set of moral and ethical codes for employee behaviour

Question 8.

The “Peter Principle” states that, in a hierarchy every employee:

A-Tends to rise to their natural level of competence

B-Tends to rise to their natural level of incompetence

C-Tends to challenge the views of their senior managers

D-Tends to seek promotion

Question 9.

Which of the following is a major feature of “Parkinson’s Law”?

A-Officials make work for each other

B-The contingency theory

C-Work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion

D-A continual process of balancing

Question 10.

Cloke and Goldsmith refer to the age of traditional management coming to an end. This is seen in the

 A-Decline of hierarchical, bureaucratic, autocratic management

B-Increase in hierarchical, bureaucratic, autocratic management styles

C-Increasingly international or global business environment

D-None of the above


Question 11.

Which of the following factors are cited as potential explanatory factors underlying the trend towards globalisation?

A-International business activities such as franchising

B-International competitive pressure

C-The spread of business processes across nations and regions

 D-All of the above

Question 12.

Which of the following is not an advantage of cross-cultural awareness?

A-Increased self awareness

B-Lessening ignorance, prejudice and hatred


D-Sensitivity to difference

Question 13.

Which of the following factors is an example of a factor affecting national culture referred to by Brooks?





Question 14.

Which of the following is not one of the series of “languages” conceptualised by Hall?

A-Language of group

B-Languages of things

C-Language of agreements

D-Language of friendships

Question 15.

What is the premise relating to organisational behaviour put forward by Wood as part of the Financial Times Mastering Management series?

A-Organisational behaviour can be regarded as the key to the whole area of management.

B-There is a need for a cross cultural approach to the study of organisational behaviour.

C-There is a dramatic change taking place in the philosophy underlying organisational behaviour.

D-None of the above.

Question 16

The study of management theory is important for which of the following reasons:

A-It is scientific

B-Management theories are interpretive and evolve with organisational changes

C-It helps decision making

D-All of the above


Question .

Which approach to the study of organisational behaviour emphasises the formal structure, hierarchy of management, the technical requirements and the assumption of rational behaviour?

A-The systems approach

B-The contingency theory

C-The human relations approach

D-The classical approach



Which of the following are sub-groupings of the classical approach?


A-Individual and bureaucracy

B-Scientific management and bureaucracy

C-Scientific management and gender management

D-Environment and individual



Which of the following is not a feature of a bureaucracy?


B-Hierarchy of authority





Which of the following is an example of the Hawthorne experiments?


A-The relay assembly test room

B-The bank wiring observation room

C-The interview  programme

D-The illumination experiments

All of the above




The systems approach __________________?


A-Encourages managers to view the organisation both as a whole and as part of a larger environment

B-Emphasises the psychological and social aspects

C-Emphasises the technical requirements of the organisation and its needs

D-All of the above



Which of the following is not a principle of action theory?


A-Individual members will each have their own goals and interpretation of their work situation

B-Actions can lead to changes in meanings

C-Sociology is concerned not just with behaviour but with meaningful action

D-None of the above



Which of the following is an advantage of dividing the writers on organisational management into various approaches?

A-The use of the term “schools” provides a clear distinction between each division

B-The various approaches are completely unrelated

C-It enables the manager to take from the different approaches those ideas which best suit the requirements of the job



What is the major criticism of the attempt to define generalised models of management theory?


A-The categorisation of writers is arbitrary

B-They provide universalistic principles of behaviour.

C-The structure of management is dependent on situational variables

D-The assumption of national culture



What does Crainer suggest happens when one idea after another fails to translate into sustainable practice?



A-Ideas become as important to management decisions as is instinct

B-There is a growing disillusionment with the pedlars of managerial wisdom

C-Corporate managers continue to trust theory




 Most social scientists believe individual personality is influenced by two main factors:


A-Education and genetic make-up

B-Social class and family environment

C-Inherited characteristics and social environment

D-Local environment and family traits



Nomothetic researchers into personality take an approach which is broadly:







The idiographic approach believes that early family life contributes to personality development:







Which   of the  following is not one of the “Big Five” dimensions of personality difference:

A-Conscientiousness and heedlessness

B-Emotional stability and instability


D- Extraversion/introversion



Eysenck describes those who are calm, even-tempered, peaceful and thoughtful as:






Question 6.

Cattell used _________ as his main personality descriptor.









Cooley described the process by which we come to understand our own personalities through relationships and the reactions of others. He termed this

A-The emergent self

B-The hidden self

C-The looking-glass self

D-The true self



Erik Erikson’s theory is a good example of the _____________ approach.







Question 9.

The psychologist who influenced the creation of the Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator by Isabel Briggs-Myers and Katherine Briggs was:


A-Kenny Rogers

B-George Melly

C-Carl Jung

D-Clement Freud


Question 10.

Kelly’s theory of personality constructs led to the development of:

A-The repertory grid

B-The Myers-Briggs type indicator

C-Cattel’s 16PF

D-All of the above



Friedman and Rosenman’s work suggested that stress tended to cause illness more frequently in those with

A-Neither type

B-Both types equally

C-Type B personality

D-Type A personality



Nativists believe that intelligence is mostly:



B-Developed by experience


D-A fixed quantity



The British Psychological Society divides psychological tests into two types – tests of:

A-Repeated and optimal performance

B-Optimal and typical performance

          C-Typical and maximum performance

D-Maximum and repeated performance



___________________ can be defined as “providing a state of readiness or tendency to respond in a particular way”.








In a Diversity Management approach, organisations seek to achieve a situation where:

            A-Individual differences are valued by the business

B-The organisation has a homogeneous workforce

C-All categories of disadvantaged groups are represented at management level

D-Individual differences are created through training



According to Mitchell, the purpose of motivational theories is to:

A-Change behaviour

B-Predict behaviour

C-Control behaviour

D-Organise behaviour



Needs and expectations at work are sometimes divided into two types:







mllins proposes a three-fold classification of motivation as a starting point for discussion which comprises:


A-Social relationships, organisational affiliation and economic rewards

B-Economic rewards, intrinsic satisfaction and social relationships

C-Intrinsic satisfaction, social relationships and organisational affiliation

D-Organisational affiliation, economic rewards and social relationships



Which of the following is a positive reaction to the blockage of a desired goal?







Negative responses to the blockage of a desired goal include:




D-All three of the above



Managers can attempt to reduce levels of frustration in organisation members by:

A-Effective recruitment

B-Participative management

C-All of the above

D-None of the above



Aldefer and McClelland are two examples of ___________ theories of motivation.








Maslow suggests that human needs are arranged in a series of levels, a hierarchy of importance. Which of the following statements are relevant to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory?

A-A need is not necessarily fully satisfied before a subsequent need arises

B-A satisfied need is no longer a motivator

C-The hierarchy is not necessarily in a fixed order

D-All of the above



Steers and Porter’s model relates the _____________ level of Maslow’s Hierarchy to organisational factors that include a cohesive work group and friendly supervision.






According to Herzberg, which of the following may be regarded as hygiene/maintenance factors?

A-Working conditions


C-Company policy

D-All of the above


McClelland’s achievement motivation theory states that people with a high achievement need have a preference for:

A-Attaining success through their own efforts rather than through teamwork

B-Clear and unambiguous feedback

C-Both of the above

D-Neither of the above


Vroom and Porter and Lawler developed examples of __________ models of motivation:






Equity theory of motivation focuses on:

A-People’s expectation of the different outcomes for a given action

B-People’s perception of how they should perform in a given situation at work

C-The motivational force involved in a person’s actions at work

D- The fact that people are influenced by the expected results of their actions.







Which of the following statements is true about the Goal Theory of motivation?


A-People with difficult goals will perform better than people with easier goals.

B- Research has shown that there is little support for the Goal Theory and its effects on motivation with regard to the relationship between goal-setting and performance.

C- People with easier goals will perform better than people with difficult goals.

D- A person’s level of commitment to a goal will not regulate the level of effort expended.


Which of the following is not a core job dimension as summarised by Mullins?

A-Skill variety



D-Task significance


Teams occur when a number of people have ____________________ and recognise that their personal success is dependent on the success of others.

A-Similar jobs

B-The same manager

C-A common goal

D-A shared work environment


Groups which are formed as the consequence of organisational structure and work division are known as:

A-informal groups

B-target groups

C-operational groups

D-formal groups


Bolton and Fisher noted that ________________ teams can be formed specifically to initiate organisational change.






Reasons for the formation of groups include:

A -The performance of certain tasks which can be performed only through combined efforts of individuals working together.

B-The provision of protection for its membership.

C -The provision of guidelines on generally acceptable behaviour.

D- All of the above


In the Tuckman model, groups at the ___________________ stage develop guidelines and standards of acceptable behaviour.






A potential disadvantage associated with cohesive groups is:

A-A tendency to develop attitudes which are hard to change

B-A tendency to see other groups as rivals

C-A tendency to focus on social activities which may reduce output

D-All of the above


Which of the following is not a characteristic of an effective work group?

A-The open expression of feelings and disagreements

B-A sense of commitment by individual member’s to their own goals and objectives.

C-The resolution of conflict by members themselves.

  D- A belief in shared aims and objectives.


A virtual team is a collection of people who are _________________ separated but still __________________ together closely.

A-Geographically; work

B-Physically; think

C-Geographically; decide

D-Temporally; work


A role-set is the range of contacts with whom an individual in a particular role has:

A-A line management relationship

B-Regular appraisals

C-Daily contact

D-Meaningful interactions


Belbin’s initial research led him to propose how many team roles?






The team-role which is likely to demonstrate such positive qualities as imagination and creativity but may show disregard for practical details is:




D-Team Worker


The team-role which is likely to demonstrate such positive qualities as strategic vision and accurate judgement but may also be overly critical is:

A-Team Worker





The type of communication network which is most efficient for simple tasks is the:

A-All channel





The risky-shift phenomenon means that there is a tendency for groups to make decisions which are _______________________ than those which individual members would make.

A-Less risky

B-Less consistent

C-More conservative

D-More risky


Brainstorming as a problem-solving and decision-making technique:

A-Focuses the mind

B-Encourages communication

C-Involves everyone

D-All three of the above


Which  of the following is an explanation of the “Johari Window”

A-A blind area

B-Hidden behaviour

C-A simple framework for looking at self-insight

D-None of the above


According to Douglas are people management skills are the ______________ types of skills.


B-Direct and honest


D-More difficult and rare



   Leadership today is increasingly associated with the concept of ______________?

A-Getting others to follow





Which of the following statements about leadership is false?

A-Leadership does not necessarily take place within a hierarchical structure of an organisation

B-When people operate as leaders their role is always clearly established and defined

C-Not every leader is a manager

D-All the above


Approaches to the study of leadership which emphasis the personality of the leader are termed ______________.

A-Inspirational theories

B-Trait theories

C-Group theories

D-Contingency theories


Adair claims that the effectiveness of a leader is dependent upon meeting ________areas of need within the work group.




D-None of the above


In Adair’s approach, needs such as training the group, setting standards and maintaining discipline, and appointing sub-leaders may be called _____________.

            A-Team functions

B-Task functions

C-Work functions

D-Individual functions


The Ohio State Leadership Studies revealed two major dimensions of leadership behaviour: _________________ and initiating structure.






The terms “employee-centred” and “production-centred” to describe leader behaviour were used by ___________?



C-Blake and McCanse



What are the four main styles of leadership displayed by the manager which identified in Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s continuum of possible leadership behaviour?

A-Tells, helps, joins and leads

B-Commands, sells, consults and resists

C-Commands, helps, joins and leads

D-Tells, sells, consults and joins


On what belief are contingency theories of leadership based?

A-That there is a single style of leadership appropriate to all situations

B-That there is a single style of leadership appropriate to all managers

C-That there is no single style of leadership appropriate to all situations

D-None of the above


According to Fiedler’s LPC scale what will leaders with a low LPC score gain satisfaction from?

A-Developing team relationships

B-Achieving objectives

C-Both of the above

D-Neither of the above


On which aspects of a leader’s decision are Vroom and Yetton’s contingency model of leadership based?

A-Decision quality

B-Decision acceptance

C-Both of the above

D-Neither of the above


One contingency model of leadership is the path-goal theory. This suggests that an individual‘s motivation is dependent on _____________________.

A-Their effective performance

B-The necessary direction, guidance, training and support being provided

C-Whether path-goal relationships are clarified

D-Expectations that increased effort to achieve an improved level of performance will be successful


The situation leadership theory of ___________ and ______________ is based on follower’s readiness to perform.

A-Abbot and Costello

B-Vroom and Yetton

C-Hersey and Blanchard

D-Tannenbaum and Schmidt


Extensive research in over 30 countries has shown that people want leaders who exemplify four qualities. Kouzes and Posner (2000) suggest these qualities are ________, ________, _________ and ___________.

A-Inspiring, competent, influential, dynamic

B-Honest, dynamic, ruthless, single minded

C-Forward-looking, influential, competent, dynamic

D-Honest, forward-looking, inspiring, competent


Referent power is based on the subordinate’s perception that the leader has a right to exercise influence because of the leader’s _______________.

A-Personal charisma

B-Ability to punish or reward

C-Role or position within the organisation

D-Expertise and knowledge


According to Knights and Williams, what could management be seen as?

A-A job title

B-An everyday activity involving interactions between people

C-A field of study

D-A social position


Which of the following are included in Watson’s method of viewing management?

A-Personality, job title, style, politics

B-Management as magic, job title, management as art, management as science

C-Management as magic, management as art, management as science, management as politics

D-Leadership. management as art, management as science, management as politics


Administration can be viewed as:

A-The same thing as management

B-Separate from management

C-Part of management

D-Less important than management


Brech identifies four main elements of management. They are: planning, control, co-ordination and:



C-The division of work



Which of the following is not one of the five elements of management?








Mintzberg classified the activities of monitoring, disseminating and being a spokesperson as part of a manager’s ______________ role.




D-None of the above


Kotter identified the significant activities which all managers had in common as:

A-Network building and strategic planning

B-Strategic planning and resource allocating

C-Agenda setting and resource allocating

D-Agenda setting and network building



Managers require a combination of technical competence, social and human skills and conceptual ability. Technical competence may be defined as:

A-The ability to secure the effective use of human resources of the organisation

B-The ability to view the complexities of the operations of the organisation as a whole, including environmental influences

C-The ability to apply specific knowledge, methods and skills to discrete tasks


What type of approach is most frequently identified with Human Capital Management (HCM)?


B-Influencing and manipulative

C-Formalized, technical and manipulative

D-Interpersonal and technical


Which of the following statements is not an assumption of a manager who might adopt a Theory X style of management?

A-The average person avoids responsibility

B-People must be threatened with punishment if the organisation is to meet its objectives

C-The intellectual potential of the average person is only partially utilised

D-The average person is lazy and has an inherent dislike of work


Which of the following is an assumption of Theory Y?

A-Given the right conditions, the average worker can learn to accept responsibility

B-Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement

C-The capacity for creativity in solving organizational problems is distributed widely in the population

D-The intellectual potential of the average person is only partly utilised

E-All of the above


The Blake and Mouton Leadership (or Managerial) Grid uses two key dimensions in relation to management style; concern for ___________ and concern for _______________.

A-Production, co-operation

B-Productio n, teamwork

            C-People, production

D-People, targets


In the Blake and Mouton Leadership grid, which management style has a low concern for people but a high concern for production?



C-Country club



MBO stands for:

A-Management by Objectives

B-Management by Organising

C-Management by Objectification

D-Managerial Behaviour in Organisations


Which of the following philosophies are likely to make for the successful management of people and lead to improved work performance?

A-Emphasis on end-results

B-Fair and equitable treatment

C-Staff and customer satisfaction

D-Involvement and availability

Recognition and credit

All of the above


Which of the following is NOT a measure of a manager’s effectiveness?

A-Speed of promotion through the organisation

B-Level of staff turnover

C-Absenteeism and sickness

D-Accidents at work


Corporate strategy can be seen as a term which embraces a link between structure, the process of management and:

A-Job design

B-Work organisation

C-Applications of organisational behaviour

D-Human resource management


According to Lynch, in public sector organizations strategy is likely to be governed by:


B-Public policy issues

C-Both of the above

D-Neither of the above


A simple way of expressing the term “synergy” is ____________?

A-2 + 2 = 5

B-2 x 2 = 1

C-2 x 2 = 4

D-2 + 2 = 4


One way of evaluating an organisation’s business environment and strategic capability is to use a __________________ analysis.






Organisations have both formal and informal goals. Informal goals can be inferred from:

A-The mission statement

B-The strategic plan

C-Decisions and actions taken from within the organisation

D-The annual results


Organisational ____________________ set out more specifically the goals of the organisation, the aims to be achieved and the desired end state.






A  policy ________________?

A-Provides the basis for decision making and the course of action to follow to achieve objectives.

B-Is a set of managerial objectives

C-Both of the above

D-Neither of the above


Which of the following is not one of the categories found in the mnemonic SMART objectives?







The objectives of structure may be summarised as to provide for ______________?

A-The social satisfaction of members working in the organisation

B-The economic and efficient performance of the organisation

C-Accountability for areas of work undertaken by groups

D-Flexibility in order to respond to future demands

E- All of the above


What are the 3 interrelated levels which, according to Mullins, it is possible to look at organisations in terms of?

A-Community, individual, managerial

B-Technical, managerial, community

C-Individuals, society, organisation

D-Technical, managerial, society


Which of the following best defines the term “span of control”?

A-The vertical graduation of authority and responsibility

B-The length of the manager’s arms

C-The number of subordinates who report directly to a given manager

D-The responsibility the supervisor has for the actions of their subordinates


Which of the following is not a relationship found in a formal organisation?







What sort of organisation might operate a matrix structure?

A-A university

B-A local authority social services department

C-An insurance company

D-All of the above


The contingency approach develops the _________ approach one stage further in relating the environment to specific structures of organisation.


B-Organisation chart



E-None of the above


 Control is a general concept that can be applied to __________________?

A-Individual performance only

B-Individual behaviour only

C-Organisational performance only

D-Both individual behaviour and organisational performance


What does the human relations approach sees control as?

A-A feature of the way organisations are structured



D-A feature of interpersonal influence

E-None of the above


Which of the following is not something with which a control can be concerned?

A-Type of production system

B-Policies and procedures

C-General results

D-Observance of legislation

E-Recruitment and selection

F-None of the above


Which of the following is a strategy for control as explained by Child?





D-all of the above


Which of these are characteristics of an effective control system?

A-it should be able to determine corrective action

B-it should be subject to continual review

C-it should report deviations from desired standards as soon as possible

D-all of the above


Power differs according to the means by which members of the organisation are likely to comply. Which three types of power are identified by Etzioni?

A-Coercive; remunerative; normative

B-Normative; legitimate; coercive

C-Referent; remunerative; legitimate

D-Coercive; referent; reward


__________ power relies on the allocation and the manipulation of symbolic rewards, for example, esteem and prestige.






Which of the following defies calculative involvement?

A-When members are involved against their wishes.

B-The individuals belief in the goals of the organsiation

C-Where attachment to the orgainisation is motivated by extrinsic rewards

D-None of the above


The three levels of power are ______________?

A-Institutional, national, individual

B-Processional, organisational, national

C-Processional, institutional, organisational

D-None of the above


According to Hicks and Gullett for a control system to be meaningful it should ____________?

A-Draw attention to critical activities important to the success of the organisation

B-Be understood by those involved in its operation

C-Report deviations from the desired standard of performance as quickly as possible

D-Conform with the structure of the organisation

E-  All of the above


Which of the following, according to Pfeffer, is a way in which an individual or group may acquire power in an organisation?

A-Reward power

B-Legitimate power

C-Being Irreplaceable

D-Expert power

E-All of the above


Delegation creates a special manager-subordinate relationship based on:

A-authority, responsibility, accountability

B-authority, power, control

C-power, ability, willingness

D-knowledge, skill, attitude


A study of major UK businesses suggests that the reaction to the new wave of management thinking on empowerment is _______________?

A-Despondent reaction

B-Mixed reaction

C-Apathetic reaction

D-Enthusiastic reaction


Which of the following is a possible reason for a lack of delegation?

A-The manager has no terms of reference

B-The manager fears the subordinate will be too good a job and show the manager in a bad light

C-The manager has had no guidance support and training

None of the above

D-All of the above


Which of the following is one of the stages in a planned and systematic approach to delegation?

A-Guidance, support and training

B-Freedom of action within agreed terms of reference

C-Effective monitoring

D-Clarification of objectives

All of the above


What does and Ethical Foundation for an organisation embody?

A-The structure, operational and conduct of the activities of the organisation

B-The basic principles which govern the external and internal relations of the organisation

C-Neither of the above


What does the importance of ethical behaviour, integrity and trust call into question?

A-The extent to which managers should attempt to change the underlying beliefs and values of individual followers

B-What we do next

C-Who does what

None of the above

All of the above


A ________ _________ sets out the purpose and general direction for the organisation?

A-Mission statement


C-Purpose statement

D-Profit statement

E-All of the above


Which of the following would most effectively act as the primary objective of a business organisation?

A-To procure resources

B-To mediate between the organisation and the environment

C-To communicate with shareholders

D-To make a profit

E-All of the above


What is the purpose of a balanced scorecard?

A-To measure contribution of people to business growth

B-To relate business performance to customer satisfaction

C-To relate business performance to financial measures

D-To combine a range of qualitative and quantitative indicators of performance

E-All of the above


Which of the following does the term Corporate Social Responsibility relate to?

A-Ethical conduct

B-Environmental practice

C-Human rights and employee relations

D-Community investment

E-All of the above


            Who are organisational stakeholders?



C-Providers of finance



F-All of the above


What is Ethics to do with?

A-The wider community


C-Right and wrong


E-None of the above


 Which of the following is an example of an area where business ethics apply?

A-Conduct of international operations


C-In the personal life of staff

D-None of the above


           Which legislation relates to the concept of business ethics?

A-Building regulations

B-Food Act

C-Freedom of Information Act

D-All of these


            According to French and Bell, culture is ____________________?

A-Traditions, values, policies, beliefs

B-Values, styles, processes, activities

C-Traditions, values

D-The bedrock of behaviour in organisations

E-Policies, practices, behaviours

F-None of the above


            A number of approaches may be used to bring about effective change within an organisation,               often called intervention strategies, these include:

A-grid training

B-team building


D-all of the above


 Schein suggested three levels of culture in order from shallowest to deepest. In this order,                      they are:

A-History, artefacts, beliefs

B-Assumptions, artefacts, values

C-History, values, activities

D-Artefacts, values, assumptions

E-None of the above


          Harrison and Handy describe a project oriented organisation which is structured like a matrix              and based on expert power as a __________ culture.





E-None of the above


          According to Deal and Kennedy, an organisation of individualists who take high risks and                      receive quick feedback, is an example of a ____________? described as:

A-process culture

B-Work-hard/play-hard culture

C-Bet-your-company culture

D-Tough-guy, macho culture

E-None of the above


The pervasive nature of culture means that it will significantly affect:

A-Motivation and job satisfaction


C-Group behaviour

D-All of the above


           Organisational climate is based on the ____________ of members towards the organisation.




D-None of the above

All of the above


             Galunic and Weeks suggest that with the demise of ______________ companies need other                strategies to encourage commitment?

A-Pension plans

B-Job security

C-Promotion opportunities

D-Career paths

E-None of the above


          Resistance to change can be caused by:

A-Selective perception



D-All of the above


            It is Cunningham’s belief that, despite the popular myth to the contrary, people generally

A-Love change

B-Like being controlled

C-Prefer stability

D-Dislike change


            Which of the following is NOT one of Kotter and Cohen’s series of steps for successful                            management of large-scale change?

A-Empowering action

B-Producing short-term wins

C-Creating visions


E-None of the above

Question – Which  of the following is a reason for an individual’s resistance to change

A-Selective perception


C-Economic implications

D-Security in the past

E-All of the above


          According to Kotter and Cohen, which of the following is not a step for successful large-scale                change?

A-Build a guiding team

B-Create visions

C-Make change stick

D-Process management

E-Don’t let up

E-None of the above









Overview of Organization Behaviour of Management:

Lecture 1: Organization Behavior

Concept of Management:

To manage is to forecast   and to plan to organize to command to coordinate and to command, to coordinate and to control.                                                                                            {Henry Fayol }(1949)
Management is a multipurpose organ that manage a business and managers and manages worker &      work                                                                                                                                   (Peter F  Drucker )
Nature of Management:
(I)                 Social process
(II)               Multi-disciplinary
(III)             Integrated  process
(IV)             Universal  application
(V)               Continuous process
(VI)              Intangible  force
(VII)           Interactive  process
(VIII)          Result through others
(IX)             Science and art
Function of Management   (As per Henry Fayol 1949)
1.       Planning
2.       Organizing
3.       Commanding
4.       Coordinating
5.       Controlling
Modern Management  Function:
1.        Planning
2.        Organizing
3.       Leading
4.       Controlling
Managerial   role:
      A.       Informational  role:   Monitor, Discriminator, Spokesperson
B.      Interpersonal   role:   Figurehead   (symbolic head), Greeting visitors, Leader,  Liaison
C.      Decisional role:  Entrepreneur,  Disturbance Handler,  Resource Allocators
Managerial Skills:
1.       Conceptual skills
2.       Human skills

3.       Technical skills


Organizational Behavior – OB a field of study that investigate the impact that individuals `groups and

structure have on behavior within an organization (Robbins 2003 )

Levels of Analysis –

1. Individual levels

2. Group levels

3. Organizational Analysis

Historical Evolution of OB –

(a ) Adam smith – Wealth of nations (1776) it states that org and society would reap prom the division of


(b) Charles Babbage – On the economy of machining and manufacturer (1832) Charles highlights

the advantage of Adam Smith theory

(B) Classical era – (1900 -1930 ) Main contributors –

1 Frederick Taylor

2 Henri fayol

3 Max weber

4 Marry Parker Follet

5 Chester Bernued


Scientific management

Father of modern mgmt

Wage plans

Right person right job right plan

Standardization of tools & technique

Work & time  study

Time & Motion study

Piece rate system : breaking down each task into smallest units

Henri fayol –

Book : General and industrial mgmt (1916)

14 principle of management

Administrative approach

Remuneralion of individual

Authority & Responsibility



Scalar chain

Unity of command

Unity of direction


Suborinalion of individual interest to general interest

Esprit of de corps


Division of work

Stability of tenure

Management Function –




Co – ordinating and Controlling

Organization area –

1 Technical

2 Commercial

3 Financial

4 Security

5 Accounting

6 Management

Max Weber –  Bureaucratic Theory

Theory is based on authority and relation. and he was pioneer in looking management as a structural viewpoint.

His theory is known as bureaucratic theory.

His ideal bureaucratic structure are:

a. Jurisdictional area

b. Org follows a hierarchical people

Human Relation Movementnt –

1 Follet ; focus on group ethics rather than individual. Manager’s work was to harmonize and coordinate group.

2 Chester Bernard – focus on fostering cooperation from various stakeholder such as employee, Investors, Suppliers etc .

3 –Elton Mayo – Founder af human relation movement.

Book – The social problem of an Industrial civilization (1933)

His Research; Haw thrown studies based on illumination of light that was based on worker’s behavior at western

electric (A T& T).

Fritz Roethlisbergu & W.J Dicksou were the first to publish Hawthrown experiment in (1937) & authored

management & worker in 1939 .

His findings – Informal social pattern af work group bring work satisfaction rather physical conditions or

financial incentives.

4- Dale Carnegie ; How to win friends & influence people

5 – Abraham Maslow ; the hierarchy theory

6 – Doughals Mc Greger ; theory X and theory Y

D . Behavioral Science Theorist ;

(a) B. F . Skinner ; Research on conditioning (Classical & operand)

(b) David Mc Clelland ; Theory of achievement

( c) Fred Fiedler ;

Focus on situational a sprit of leadership & developed comprehensive theory of leadership.

(d) Fredrick Herzberg ; Two Factor theory (Hygiene theory)

Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field ;

* Psychology:  A study that measures explain and change in behavior of humans and other animals (e.g. learning, motivation, perception, training )

*Sociology: A study of social system in which individual adjust itself .

*Social psychology: Focus on the influence of people on one-another it results behaviorl attitude

change and group decision .

*Anthropology; A study of societies to learn about human–beings and their activities which they work at

cultures and environment.

*Political Science ; Study of behaviour of individuals and group within  political environment. It focus on        conflicts power.


Please wait for next lecture:


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