Here, We are providing a list of question of UGC NET for Polity, Environment and Computer or ICT asked in UGC NET 2016 JUNE. All these question contribute around 33% markes in paper 1. As all of us know Paper 1 is the only section where you can achieve easily 90-100% marks easily. Other section of paper 1 is very easy. So, here we are discussing those. Here we are discussing those parts of UGC NET where students do mistakes by assuming these parts are very boring and tough. But I am assuring you only 60 pages of notes make you 100% competent in this part of UGC NET, Which help you to get 90% marks atleast  in exams of UGC NET.


1. An unsolicited e-mail message sent to many recipient at once is a________
1. Worm
2. Virus
3. Threat
4. Spam
Answer: 4
2. The statement “ the study, development, implementation, support or
management of computer-based information systems, particularly software
applications and computer hardware” refers to
1. Information Technology (IT)
2. Information and collaborative Technology (ICT)
3. Information and data Technology (IDT)
4. Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Answer: 1
3. If the binary equivalent of the decimal number 48 is 110000, then the binary
equivalent of the decimal number 51 is given by
1. 110011
2. 110010
3. 110001
4. 110100
Answer: 1
4. Identify the air pollutant in urban areas which irritates eyes and also respiratory
tract of human beings.
1. Particulate matter
2. Oxides of nitrogen
3. Surface ozone
4. Carbon monoxide
Answer: 3
5. Which of the following is the largest source of water pollution in major rivers of India?
1. Untreated sewage
2. Agriculture run-off
3. Unregulated small scale industries
4. Religious practices
Answer: 1
6. Sustainable development goals have specific targets to be achieved by
1. 2022
2. 2030
3. 2040
4. 2050
Answer: 2
7. Indian government’s target of producing power from biomass by the year 2022, is
1. 50 MW
2. 25 MW
3. 15 MW
4. 10 MW
Answer: 4
8. Assertion (A): Conserving our soil resources is critical to human survival.Reason
(R): Soil is home to many micro-organisms and contains minerals.Choose the correct
1. Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
2. Both (A) and (R) are correct but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
3. (A) is true and (R) is false
4. (A) is false and (R) is true
Answer: 2
9. World Meteorological Organization’s (WMO) objective has been to reduce the number of deaths due to hydro meteorological disasters over the decade 2010 –2019 by (with reference to the decade 1994 – 2003)
1. 25%
2. 50%
3. 75%
4. 80%
Answer: 2
10. ________is a type of memory circuitry that holds the computer’s start-up routine.
1. RIM (Read Initial Memory)
2. RAM (Random Access Memory)
3. ROM (Read Only Memory)
4. Cache Memory
Answer: 3
11. An ASCII is a character-encoding scheme that is employed by personal computers in order to represent various characters, numbers and control keys that the computer used selects on the keyboard. ASCII is an acronym for
1. American Standard Code for Information Interchange
2. American Standard Code for Intelligent Information
3. American Standard Code for Information Integrity
4. American Standard Code for Isolated Information
Answer: 1
12. The National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC) has been declared unconstitutional by
1. The Supreme Court of India
2. The High Court
3. The High Court and the Supreme Court both
4. The President of India
Answer: 1
13. Which of the following statements about the Indian political system is/are correct?
(a) The president is both Head of the State and Head of the Government.
(b) Parliament is Supreme.
(c) The Supreme Court is the guardian of the Constitution.
(d) The Directive Principles of State Policy are justifiable.
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
1. (a), (b), (c) and (d)
2. (b), (c) and (d)
3. (b) and (c)
4. (c) only
Answer: 4
14. Which of the following are the fundamental duties?
(a) To respect the National Flag.
(b) To protect and improve the natural environment.
(c) For a parent to provide opportunities for education to his/her child.
(d) To protect monuments and places of national importance.
Select the correct answer from the codes given:
(1) (a), (b) and (c)
(2) (a), (b) and (d)
(3) (a), (c) and (d)
(4) (a), (b), (c) and (d)
Answer: 4
15. Which of the following statements are correct in respect of Niti Aayog?
(a) It is a constitutional body.
(b) It is a statutory body.
(c) It is neither a constitutional body nor a statutory body.
(d) It is a think-tank.
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
(1) (a) and (d)
(2) (b) and (d)
(3) (c) and (d)
(4) (b), (c) and (d)
Answer: 3

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Marketing Multiple Choice Questions 2

                                   CLASS TEST

There are fifty questions, each carry 2 marks. All are compulsory.

  1. Assertion (A). Selling is important not merely for increasing the profits of businessmen, but also for making goods and services available to the consumers in society.

Reason (R). It is the process whereby goods and services finally flow to the consumers who need them and the firm performs its functions of distributing its products among consumers.

  1. Assertion (A) and Reason (R) both are true
  2. Assertion (A) is true but Reason (R) is not true
  3. Assertion (A) is not true but Reason (R) is true
  4. Assertion (A) and Reason (R) are true and Reason (R) is the reason of Assertion (A)
  5. With online advertising program,_________, the companies can reach customers and grow business.
    a) AdWords
    b) AdSense
    c) AdCity
    d) AdAlpha
  6. Marketers operate in which marketplaces:a) Consumer and business
    b) Global and non-profit
    c) a & b both
    d) None of the above
  7. “Better products, Better value, Better living” is the mission statement of which company:

    a) VICCO
    b) HUL
    c) P&G
    d) NIRMA

  8. Marketing is an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefits the organization and its stakeholders” definition is given bya) Philip Kotler
    b) The American Marketing Association
    c) The Association of National Advertisers
    d) Peter Drucker
  9. In the software industry, Bangalore is positioned as thea) Silicon Valley of India
    b) Tech city of India
    c) Power Hub city
    d) Engineering City of India
  10. Indian Government is marketing India as a tourist destination through the ___________ advertisement campaign.
    a) Credible India
    b) Incredible India
    c) Gateway to backwaters
    d) Gateway of India
  11. Resource markets can be classified into:a) Raw material markets and labor markets
    b) Labor markets and money market
    c) Raw material market, labor market and money market
    d) None of the above
  12. Which of the following statement is true about rural marketing?a) Rural Marketing consists of marketing of only inputs to the rural marketb) Rural Marketing consists of marketing of only outputs from the rural markets to other geographical areas

    c) Rural Marketing consists of marketing of inputs to the rural market as well as well as marketing of outputs from the rural markets to other geographical areas

    d) All of above are false

  13. Value can be defined as the sum of the perceived tangible and intangible costs and benefits to customers and is a combination of :a) quality and service
    b) Service and price
    c) Quality, service and price
    d) None of the above
  14. In marketing terms, “QSP” stands fora) Quality, service and price
    b) Quality, service and product
    c) Quality, sales and product
    d) Quality, sales and prices
  15. Value ______ with quality and service and ______ with price.a) Increases, decreases
    b) increases, increases
    c) Decreases, increases
    d) Decreases, decreases
  16. The marketer uses _____________ to display, sell, or deliver the physical product or service to the buyer or user.a) Communication channel
    b) Distribution channel
    c) Service Channel
    d) None of the above
  17. When a firm acquires its peers or expands downstream or upstream, its objective is toa) Capture a higher percentage of Supply Chain Value
    b) Capture a higher percentage of Demand Chain Value
    c) a & b
    d) None of the above
  18. The broad environment consists of:a) Demographic environment, economic environment and physical environment
    b) Technological environment, political-legal environment and social-cultural environment
    c) Both a & b
    d) None of the above
  19. The societal forces that spawned the Information Age have resulted ina) Many new consumer capabilities
    b) Many new company capabilities
    c) Many new consumer and company capabilities
    d) None of the above

17 The original name of NIKE was

a) Blue Ribbon Sports
b) Red Ribbon Sports
c) Blue and Red Ribbon Sports
d) Orange Ribbon Sports

18 Holistic Marketing incorporates:

a) Relationship marketing and integrated marketing
b) Internal marketing and performance marketing
c) Both a & B
d) None of the above

18 Marketing focuses on the need of _______

a) buyer
b) Seller
c) Buyer and Seller
d) None of the above

19 Brand and customer equity is an element of

a) Relationship marketing
b) Integrated marketing
c) Internal marketing
d) Performance marketing

20 Select the theme of integrated marketing:

a) Many different marketing activities communicate and deliver value
b) When coordinated, marketing activities maximize their joint effects
c) Both a & B
d) None of the above

21 Making gifts of money, goods, or time to help non-profit organizations, groups or individuals is:

a) Corporate social marketing
b) Cause marketing
c) Cause-related marketing
d) Corporate philanthropy

  1. Promoting social issues through efforts such as licensing agreements, advertising and sponsorships is:a) Corporate social marketing
    b) Cause marketing
    c) Cause-related marketing
    d) Corporate philanthropy

23 _____________- recognizes that “Everything Matters” with marketing and that a broad, integrated perspective is often necessary.

a) The production concept
b) The product concept
c) The holistic marketing concept
d) The selling concept

  1. The value creation and delivery sequence process place emphasis on:a) Choosing the value
    b) Providing the value
    c) Communicating the value
    d) All of the above
  2. Market Research and company self analysis is a part ofa) Value-developing process
    b) Value-delivering process
    c) Value-defining process
    d) None of the above

26 Michael Porter of Harvard has proposed the _______ as a tool for identifying ways to create more customer value.

a) Product chain
b) Value chain
c) Supply chain
d) None of the above

27, The primary activities in a value chain includes

a) Inbound logistics and outbound logistics
b) Procurement and technology development
c) Human Resource Management
d) Firm Infrastructure.

28 Customer relationship management, internal resource management and business partnership management are the key functions of

a) Value exploration
b) Value delivery
c) Value creation
d) None of the above

29 Tactical marketing plan focuses on

a) Promotion
b) Merchandising
c) Sales Channel
d) All of the above

30 A target market definition tends to focus on selling a product or service to a

a) Current market
b) Potential market
c) Both a & b
d) None of the above

31 For intensive growth, the company first considers whether it could gain more market share with its current products in their current market, using a _________

a) Market-penetration strategy
b) Market development strategy
c) Product-development strategy
d) Diversification strategy

32 Market development strategy focuses on

a) Current products and new markets
b) Current products and current markets
c) New products and current markets
d) New products and new markets

33 Product development strategy for achieving intensive growth focuses on:

a) Current products and new markets
b) Current products and current markets
c) New products and current markets
d) New products and new markets

34 Acquiring one or more suppliers for integrative growth is

a) Horizontal integration
b) Forward integration
c) Backward integration
d) None of the above

35 Peter Drucker pointed out that it is more important to __________ to be effective than to ________ to be efficient.

a) Do the right thing, do things right
b) Do things right, do the right thing
c) Do the right thing, do things wrong
d) None of the above

36 For an MBO (Manages by objectives) system to work, the business unit’s objectives must meet ___ criteria.

a) 5
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

37 Michael Porter has proposed _______ generic strategies that provide a good starting point for strategic thinking.

a) 3
b) 5
c) 4
d) 6

38 Under the Consumer Protection Act, following rights of the consumers are recognized:

a) Safety and information
b) Representation and Redressal
c) Choice and consumer education
d) All of the above

39 ________________ allows for the systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data and findings relevant to a specific market situation.

a) An internal record system
b) A marketing research system
c) A marketing intelligence system
d) None of the above

40 ______________ is a book published by Businessworld that provides a range of useful data on the Indian market environment, and commentaries and articles by business researchers and professionals.

a) The Marketing Whitebook
b) The Marketing Redbook
c) The Marketing Greenbook
d) None of the above

41 Companies and their suppliers, marketing intermediaries, customers, competitors, and publics all operate in a ___________________ of forces and trends, increasingly global, that shapes opportunities and pose threats.

a) Macroenvironment
b) Microenvironment
c) Both a and b
d) None of the above

42 Within the rapidly changing global picture, the firm must monitor six major forces: demographic, economic, ___________, natural, technological and political legal.

a) social
b) social-cultural
c) cultural
d) None of the above

43  The main demographic force that marketers monitor is _________.

a) Population
b) Literacy
c) Sex
d) None of the above

44 Green marketing myopia can be avoided by

a) Consumer value positioning
b) Calibration of consumer knowledge
c) Both a and b
d) None of the above

45 ______________ are the environmental leaders and activists, and are characterized by strong knowledge of environmental issues.

a) True Blue Greens
b) Greenback Greens
c) True Greens
d) None of the above

  1. “The performance of business activities that directs the flow of goods and services from producer to consumer or user.”, Given by:                    a.American Marketing Association, b. Peter Ducker, c. Philip Kotler, d.None 
  2.  “Image building” objectives are common in _____ type of market structure?

a Competition, b. Oligopoly, c. Monopoly, None

  1. A specialty product is ________ intensively distributed than a shopping product                                                                                                      a. More, b. Less, c. Both of the above
  2. In macro environment, ‘pressure groups’:                                                              a.cultural environment b. demographic environment c. economic    environment d. political environment
  3. In company’s microenvironment, ‘general publics’ consists of                a.minority groups, b. stockholders c. community organizations., d. public image

Marketing Multiple Choice Questions 1

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. The first step in the market segmentation process is to

Position offer in the market

Target the market

Segment the market

Define the market


2. The Coca Cola Company markets a wide range of different beverage products including soft drinks, bottled water, juices and sports drinks. Each product appeals to a different segment. This is an example of which type of market offering?


Undifferentiated marketing

Differentiated marketing

Targeted marketing

None of the above


3. Which of the following ‘market definitions’ could be used by Mercedes Benz in describing its market?


The motor car market.

The luxury car market.

The transportation market

All of the above

  1. Which one of the following is not a geo-demographic basis for market segmentation?

Marital status             Personality

Postcode                    Occupation

  1. Psychographic segmentation categorizes markets according to

Preference to behave in certain ways

Characteristics of the organization

People’s product usage patterns

None of above

  1. Which of the following could be used as a basis for segmenting..
Frequency of purchase

Number of employees

Industry type

All of the above

  1. Which of the following should not a lifestyle segmentation factor?

The growth rate of the segment

The buyers interest in cars

An interest in sports

Stamp collecting

  1. Market positioning involves

Designing, communicating and delivering value

Creating an appropriate image of your offering in the minds of customers

Understanding the unique value propositions of your offering

All of the above

  1. Which of the following is not a commonly-used age segment?


Generation X

Baby boomers


  1. Which of the following is not a demographic characteristic?

Marital status-single

Personality – anxious



  1. Marketers segment markets to achieve which of the following objectives?

To create an offer that best fits the desires of the groups that exist in the market

To identify the most appropriate media for advertising

To better understand their target segment

All of the above


  1. Marketing environment variables are


the market forces over which marketers have little control, and which should be avoided.


the market forces over which marketers have little control, and which affect buyers’ needs as well as marketing managers’ decisions regarding marketing mix variables


the same as the market place


the market forces over which marketers have little control, and which should be avoided


  1. The variables the most common marketing mix are


Product, Price Promotion, and Placement

Product, Price Promotion, and People

Product, Research Promotion, and Placement

Product, Price, Production, and Placement


  1. A newer version of the marketing mix is


Product, Price, Production, and Placement

Create/Configure Value; Communicate Value and Deliver Value

Product value; Communicating value; Place value

Advertising; Sales Promotion; Personal Selling; Marketing Publicity


  1. Which of the following is not a product

a good

a place

a service

All of the above are products



  1. Promotion does not include which of the following

Personal Selling


Sales Promotion

Marketing Research


  1. Placement focuses on distribution. Which of the following is not part of place/placements


channels of distribution

convenience or accessibility value


All are part of placement


  1. The 4 Cs are


Convenience; Costs; Communication; Customer value

Customer cost; Customer commitment; Communication; Customer motivation

A singing group from the 60’s

Convenience; Cost to the user; Communication; Customer motivation


19 A marketing mix is


the combination of elements that make up the entire marketing process

specific to each target segment

a strategy that includes a number of different elements used to create a marketing plan

All of the above


20 Pricing decisions may include which of the following?



Pricing strategy

Target group and concepts of value

All of the above


  1. Distribution decisions include all but one of the following



Order processing

Sales Promotion



  1. Marketing is


convincing people to buy goods or services that they otherwise do not need


advertising and promoting products


high pressure door-to-door selling techniques


facilitating the exchange of value between seller and buyer


  1. An organisation that is marketing oriented will


focus its activities on achieving a variety of social goals

measure its success on the basis of financial indicators

focus its efforts on creating a sale

focus on creating and maintaining relationships with customers


  1. An organisation that is product oriented will


focus on communicating ethical standards and organisational transparency

focus on the needs of the employees before the consideration of customer needs

focus on the design, manufacture and delivery of the offering

focus its efforts on creating a sale


  1. Marketing seeks to create and manage profitable customer relationships by delivering _____ to customers


e-mail advertising

Properly trained sales people

competitive prices


26 The goal of marketing is to attract new customers by promising superior value and to


keep and grow current customers by delivering satisfaction

keep and grow current customers by delivering competitive pricing

keep and grow current customers by delivering friendly service

all of the above


27 What do organisations call a set of benefits that they promise to buyers to satisfy their needs?


need proposition

marketing plan

value offer/proposition

demand satisfaction


28 You are preparing a combination of products, services, information, and experiences to a market to satisfy needs and wants. What are you preparing?


value offer/proposition

demand satisfaction

marketing mix

tactical plan


29 Tony’s firm believes that buyers will not buy enough of the firm’s products unless the firm undertakes a large-scale selling and promotion effort. Tony’s firm is practicing the _____.


selling or promotion concept

production concept

marketing concept

relationship concept


30 To practice the marketing concept, an organisation must deliver the _____ better than competitors


level of service

attractive prices

advertising campaign

desired satisfactions


31 The traditional view of marketing revolved around the ‘Four Ps’. They are:


Profit, People, Price and Process

Product, Profit, Packaging and Promotion

Planning, Purchasing, Pushing and Profiting

Product, Price, Promotion and Place


32 Which of the following is a financial measure for assessing marketing performance?


Costs and revenue incurred by marketing decision

Customer satisfaction levels

Sales volume (number of units or quantity)

All of the above


33 The management process that compares a firm’s outcomes or processes against a standard or another firm’s outcomes or processes is known as


Competitive parity


A sales conference

None of the above


34 An analysis of strategy could address three of the following. Which is not correct


Why are some competitors’ strategies more successful than others

How far can our major competitors be pushed before retaliating

Have our strategies changed

Have major competitors’ strengths and weaknesses changed


35 There are three basically different types of standard. Which is the correct grouping


Fixed standards; Variable standards; Analytical standards

Marketing Standards; Accounting Standards; Production/Operational Standards

Fixed term standards; Variable term standards; Analytical standards

International standards; National standards; Industry standards


36 Performance may not achieve the standard that has been set for many reasons. Which is not correct


Unanticipated environmental changes may have occurred

Implementation may have been ineffective

The measurement is not correct

The standard may be unrealistic


37 Quantitative criteria commonly used to evaluate strategies normally include the following, except one. Which one?


Comparing the firm’s performance over different time periods

Comparing the firms performance to the national standard

Comparing the firm’s performance to competitors

Comparing the firm’s performance to industry standards


38 Marketing metrics normally include the following – except one. Which one?


Sales growth, market share, distribution methods, sales force size and composition

Inventory levels, delivery time, distribution expenses, gross margins, product quality, customer retention rates

Sales force effectiveness, training, selling expenses, prices, advertising effectiveness, advertising budget

Interest rates; head office costs; cost of materials; downtime



39 Which is not an example of sales metrics?


Number of sales calls; Profit by Product type; Sales by product

Calls-Current Customers; Number of Product Demos; Sales presentations to customers

Sales by sales territory; Sales by package size; Sales by size of order

The above are all examples of sales metrics


40 Which of the following is not part of the Framework for Developing Metrics


Evaluate the type of data required

Generate items for a performance scale

Describe the general nature of performance

Specify what exactly is being evaluated


41 Which of the following items would not normally be considered in Quality Assessment


Durability-the amount of use one gets from a product before it must be replaced

Return on Investment

Reliability-the probability of a product failing within a specific time period

The primary operating characteristics or benefits of a product





42 Physical evidence include

  1. paperwork, b. signage, c. Quality, d. invoices

(i) All of the above          (ii) a & b & c      (iii) a & b & d   (iv) a &d

43 The most essential element of Marketing Mix

  1. Product, b. Price, c. Place, d. Promotion

(i) All of the above          (ii) a      (iii) a & b    (iv) b &c

44 A product is a mix of

  1. Tangibles, b. Intangibles, c. both, d. none

45 A product is a mix of

  1. Tangibles, b. Intangibles, c. both, d. none

46 SBU is headed by

  1. Chairman, b. Promoter, c. Manager, d. Business manager

47 The extent to which different products and services can be used in place of a particular product refers to the ………………..


  1. The belongingness and affection is concerned with
  2. Physical need b. Social need c. Individual need, d. all of the above

49 An ability to create, deliver, and communicate a better value proposition, is a strategy of


  1. Marketing, b. Promotion, Persuading d. logistic


50   A cause-related marketing is:

  1. Cost effective marketing, b. Brownfield marketing, c. emotional marketing, d. none

51 SWOT analysis is done to measure the changes in composition of the

Population. (True/False)

  1. A _______________ is an enduring preference as a mode of conduct or an end state.

(a) Culture

(b) Value

(c) Mission

(d) Objective

  1. A set of questions, which is filled by Investigator.
  2. Questionnaires, b. Schedule, c. Matrix, d. Annexure
  3. According to Kotler, marketing is a _________ process.
  4. Health insurance companies generally use _____________ concept to sell their policies.

(a) Product

(b) Production

(c) Selling

(d) Marketing


  1. Societal concept is just an extension of the marketing concept with consideration for _____________ needs and values.


  1. Customer b. Society Mass, C. product d. none
  2. “The performance of business activities that directs the flow of goods and

        Service from producer to consumer or user.”, Given by:

  1. American Marketing Association, Peter Ducker,  c. Philip Kotler, d. None
  2. “Image building” objectives are common in _____ type of market structure?
  3. Competition
  4. Oligopoly
  5. Monopoly
  6. None


  1. A specialty product is ________ intensively distributed than a shopping product
  2. More
  3. Less
  4. Both of the above


  1. In macro environment, ‘pressure groups’:
  1. cultural environment
  2. demographic environment
  3. economic environment
  4. political environment
  1. In company’s microenvironment, ‘general publics’ consists of
  1. minority groups
  2. stockholders
  3. community organizations., D. public image


  1. D
  2. B
  3. D
  4. B
  5. A
  6. D
  7. A
  8. D
  9. D
  10. B
  11. D
  12. B
  13. A
  14. B
  15. D
  16. D
  17. D
  18. A
  19. D
  20. D
  21. D
  22. D
  23. D
  24. C
  25. A
  26. A
  27. C
  28. A
  29. A
  30. D
  31. D
  32. C
  33. B
  34. C
  35. A
  36. C
  37. B
  38. D
  39. D
  40. A
  41. C
  42. C
  43. A
  44. C
  45. D
  46. D
  47. Threats of substitution
  48. B
  49. A
  50. D there should be societal marketing
  51. False
  52. B
  53. B
  54. Societal marketing
  55. C
  56. B
  57. A
  58. A
  59. B
  60. D
  61. D

Introduction to Marketing Management

Introduction to Marketing Management

Exchange process: It occurs when the buyer with a demand and a seller with a product offering confront each other.

Marketing myopia: It refers to a short-sighted and inward looking approach to marketing that focuses more on the needs of the producer than the needs and wants of the consumers.

Marketing: A societal process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering, and freely exchanging products and services of value with others.

Marketing orientation: It requires the firm to look for consumer needs and the necessity to search for new opportunities to satisfy the consumers in a better way than the competitor.

Needs: A condition or situation in which something is required.

Production concept: A concept that assumes that customers will choose products and services that are widely available and are of low cost.

Product concept: A concept based on the proposition that consumers will favour those products that offer the most attributes like quality, performance, and other innovative features.

Selling concept: A concept that proposes that customers will not buy enough of the organisation’s products unless they are persuaded through selling efforts

  1. Marketing is a social activity directed towards satisfying customer needs and wants through an exchange process.
  2. The five core concepts of marketing are: Needs, wants, and demand, Product and services, Exchange process, Customer value and satisfaction, and Markets
  1. The main functions of marketing are advertising, sales promotion, market research, and sales planning. Marketing is not only important for a company but also for consumers and the economy. It attempts to improve standard of living through better product and service offers.
  2. Marketing, as a concept, has evolved over a period of time and has witnessed changes and modifications with the progress of civilization. There are five concepts that explain this change and offer ways to companies on how to conduct their activities. They are production concept, product concept, selling concept, marketing concept, and societal marketing concept.

The Marketing Process

Marketing audit: It refers to the analysis and evaluation of a firm’s marketing approach, activities, aims, and results achieved.

Marketing control: The process by which managers ensure that the planned activities are completely and properly executed.

Marketing implementation: It requires organising and coordinating people, resources, and activities.

Marketing mix: A planned mix of the controllable elements of a product’s marketing plan commonly termed as 4Ps – product, price, place, and promotion.

Marketing plan: It is a written document that details the necessary actions to achieve one or more marketing objectives.

Quality Function Development (QFD): QFD is applied in the early stages of the design phase so that the customers’ wants are incorporated into the final product.

Return On Quality (ROQ): ROQ assumes that there is a trade-off between the costs and benefits of improving quality. The optimum quality level of products and services maximises profits rather than maximising quality.

Strategic business unit: An autonomous division or organisational unit, small enough to be flexible and large enough to exercise control over most of the factors affecting its long-term performance.

  1. Marketing mix is a model of crafting and implementing marketing strategies. It represents controllable tactical elements. The most popular classification of marketing mix includes product, price, place (distribution), and promotion.
  2. The four traditional Ps of the marketing mix are adequate for marketing a product but they are not enough to market a service.
  3. For services marketing, strategists have suggested an extended mix which includes people, process, and physical evidence, in addition to the four Ps.
  4. Marketing planning is a forward-looking exercise, which determines the future strategies of an organisation with special reference to its product development, market development, channel design, sales promotion, profitability, etc.
  5. Marketing implementation is an important function of marketing management process. Companies follow two major approaches to ensure proper strategy implementation. These are internal marketing and total quality management.
  6. Marketing control involves establishment of performance standards, evaluation of performance against laid down standards, and taking corrective and timely action to reduce discrepancies between desired and actual performance. Performance standards refer to expected levels of performance against which performance can be compared.
  7. Control involves evaluation and effectiveness of marketing strategies, sales analysis, marketing cost analysis, and marketing audits.

Marketing Environment

A marketing manager is required to observe and monitor the trend in the external environment and incorporate the results of this observation in business and marketing plans.

Environmental scanning helps a marketing manager in analysing the components of the company’s environment.

Observation and evaluation of marketing environment helps the marketing manager to identify opportunities and threats involved in the business and helps in designing suitable marketing responses.

Analysing the micro environment is very important for businesses that include their suppliers, intermediaries, customers, shareholders, and competitors.

Macro environmental factors are grouped as demographical, cultural, social, legal and political, economic, natural, and technological environment.

Two common environment scanning techniques used by the companies are Delphi technique and scenario building technique.

Actors: Players of micro environment who have a direct bearing on the marketing decisions.

Business cycle: A predictable long-term pattern of irregular periods of economic growth and decline that is characterised by changing employment, industrial productivity, and interest rates.

Cultural environment: It is everything that is socially learned and shared by the members of the society. It consists of material artefacts and nonmaterial components.

Country market: It is the sum total of some sub-markets identified more closely with the ethnic and language based classifications.

Demographic environment: It includes the population and its characteristics.

Delphi technique: A forecasting procedure in which a series of questions and the resulting feedback are used to reach a group consensus.

Environment scanning: It refers to careful monitoring of an organisation’s internal and external environments for detecting early signs of opportunities and threats that may influence its current and future plans.

Economic environment: All those macro economic factors like income distribution, level of saving, debt and credit available to consumers, and stages in business cycle.

Inflation: The overall general upward price movement of goods and services in an economy.

Marketing environment: Refers to all the forces outside marketing that affect marketing management’s ability to build and maintain successful relationships with the target customers.

Baby boomers are the demographic group born during the post–World War II baby boom, approximately between the years 1946 and 1964. This includes people who are between 53 and 71 years old in 2017, according to the U.S. Census Bureau.

PEST analysis

The PEST analysis is a useful tool for understanding market growth or decline, and as such the position, potential and direction for a business. A PEST analysis is a business measurement tool. PEST is an acronym for Political, Economic, Social and Technological factors, which are used to assess the market for a business or organizational unit. The PEST analysis headings are a framework for reviewing a situation, and can also, like SWOT analysis, and Porter’s Five Forces model, be used to review a strategy or position, direction of a company, a marketing proposition, or idea.

Porter’s five forces

  1. Existing competitive rivalry between suppliers
  2. Threat of new market entrants
  3. Bargaining power of buyers
  4. Power of suppliers
  5. Threat of substitute products (including technology change)

What is a ‘Marketing Mix’

A marketing mix usually refers to E. Jerome McCarthy’s four P classifications for developing an effective marketing strategy: product, price, placement, or distribution, and promotion. When it is a consumer-centric marketing mix, it is extended to include three more Ps: people, process and physical evidence, and three Cs: cost, consumer and competitor. Depending on the industry and the target of the marketing plan, marketing managers may take various approaches to each of the four Ps.

BREAKING DOWN ‘Marketing Mix’

The term “marketing mix,” was first coined by Neil Borden, the president of the American Marketing Association in 1953. It is still used in 2016 to make important decisions that lead to the execution of a marketing plan. A marketing mix helps an organization make strategic decisions when launching a new or existing product. The various approaches have evolved over time, especially with the increased use of technology.

Understanding the Marketing Information Systems (MIS)


  1. Marketing success depends on making correct and timely decisions.
  2. Marketing managers need reliable and timely information about a large number of external and internal factors relevant to decision areas. Practically every decision area relevant to marketing requires the input of information.
  3. The term ‘Marketing Information Systems’ refers to a programme for managing and organising information gathered by an organisation from various internal and external sources. Its focus is on data storage, classification, and retrieval.
  4. Marketing research is a growing and widely used business activity, because a manufacturer needs to know more about his final consumers. The goal of marketing is to attract new customers by promising superior value and to: keep and grow current customers by delivering satisfaction.
  5. The marketing manager, using a variety of sources, obtains many types of information on which to base his/her decisions. Certain data, such as daily sales figures and monthly or quarterly totals are continuously and regularly supplied. Other information such as consumer survey results is generated only on special request. Other information, perhaps informally gathered competitive information, comes to the manager on an unscheduled basis.


Descriptive studies: In such studies, information is collected from a representative sample of respondents and the information collected is analysed by using statistical methods.

Exploratory research: This includes the discovering of general nature of the problem and to correctly understand the involved variables.

Exploratory research: This is the preliminary investigation of a marketing problem and is undertaken in order to understand and identify the problem.

Focus group: Focus group is a popular technique for exploratory research and brings together about eight to ten people with similar backgrounds to meet a moderator/analyst for a group discussion.

Marketing Information Systems (MIS): MIS is a programme for managing and organising information gathered by an organisation from various internal and external sources.

Primary research: Original research done by individuals or organisations to meet specific objectives is called primary research.

Research: Systematic and objective investigation of a subject or problem to discover relevant information for principles.

Secondary data: Secondary data is any information originally generated for some other purpose rather than the current problem under consideration and can be either internal or external to the organisation.

Quality Assessment:

Durability-the amount of use one gets from a product before it must be replaced

Reliability-the probability of a product failing within a specific time period

The primary operating characteristics or benefits of a product

Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning

Behavioural segmentation: In behavioural segmentation, buyers are divided into groups on the basis of their knowledge or attitude towards the use of a product or response to a product.

Concentrated marketing: It is a market coverage strategy in which company follows ‘one product-one segment’ principle.

Demographic segmentation: In demographic segmentation, the market is divided into groups based on variables such as age, family size, family, etc.

Differentiated marketing: It is a market coverage strategy in which the company goes for proper market segmentation as depicted by its analysis of the total market.

Geographic segmentation: In this type of segmentation, the market is divided into different geographical units such as nations, states, regions, cities, or neighbourhoods.

Market segmentation: It is the process of dividing a potential market into distinct sub-markets of consumers with common needs and characteristics.

Positioning: It is a process of creating an image of goods and services in

the consumers’ mind.

Psychographic segmentation: In psychographic segmentation, buyers are classified into different groups on the basis of lifestyle or personality and values.

Target marketing: IItt involves breaking a market into segments and then concentrating the marketing efforts on one or a few key segments.

Undifferentiated marketing: It is a market coverage strategy in which the company treats the target market as one and does not consider the market segments that exhibit uncommon needs.

Different types of standard: Fixed standards; Variable standards; Analytical standards

Developing Metrics:

Generate items for a performance scale

Describe the general nature of performance

Specify what exactly is being evaluated

The 4 Cs are: Convenience; Cost to the user; Communication; Customer motivation


  1. Segmentation is a scientific process in which the marketing manager identifies the bases or variables on which the market is to be divided, forms segments, profiles them, and then launches marketing programmes for each segment.
  2. Requisites of effective market segmentation include identity, accessibility, responsiveness, size, measurability, and nature of demand.
  3. The marketing manager follows four-step process for segmenting the market – form the segments, profile the segments, evaluate the segments, and target market selection.
  4. There are a few common bases, which are used in segmentation e.g.,demographic, economic, psychographics, etc.
  5. Marketers use three strategic options in target marketing. They are undifferentiated marketing, differentiated marketing, and concentrated marketing. Once the segment is identified and target market decision is made, the marketer needs to position the offer in the market.
  6. Positioning is an act of designing the company’s product offering and image to occupy a distinctive place on relevant dimensions in the minds of customers.

 A newer version of the marketing mix is:

Create/Configure Value; Communicate Value and Deliver Value.


Power, Politics, Conflict:

Power, Politics, Conflict:

Organisations are complex, and there are several issues that we have to address in managing them well. Power, politics, conflict are interrelated issues.

  1. Power

Formal power

Coercive power – A manager can coerce a person on the threat of warning, cutting of pay, holding of promotions, etc.

Reward power – A manager can reward a person and therefore, he gains power over the subordinates because the subordinate is willing to accept the orders of the manager to gain the reward.

Legitimate power – This comes because of the position and the belief that some things are supposed to be done when told by a person in that position.

Information power – This is derived from access to and control over information.

Personal power

Expert power – Here, a person is able to control or influence another person because of possessing knowledge, experience, or judgment that the other person lacks, but needs.

Rational persuasion – Rational persuasion is the ability to control another’s behavior by using logical arguments.

Referent power – Referent power refers to the ability of a leader to influence a follower because of the follower’s loyalty, respect, friendship, admiration, affection, or a desire to gain approval.

Charismatic power – Charismatic power is based on the leader’s exceptional personal qualities or the demonstration of extraordinary insight and accomplishment, which inspire loyalty and obedience from the followers.


Organisational politics refers to the use and manipulation of situations, power, and people to secure their position and gain from the situation. It may be done by letting others down and by increasing their own power, image, and status within the organisation. The results or the benefits can be tangible or intangible, depending upon the situation.


Groups are opposing each other with mutually opposing actions and counter actions

Each group attempts to create a relatively favoured position vis-a-vis the other

Types of Conflict

Conflict can be classified in many ways. Some of the classifications are discussed below:

Based on utility of conflict

The traditional view is that all conflicts are dysfunctional and hinders performance. The human relations view believes that conflict is a natural occurrence in all groups and organisations that it cannot be eliminated and may even contribute to group performance.

Outcomes of Conflict              Positive Negative
1. Leads to new ideas 1.


Diverts energy from work
2. Stimulates creativity 2.


Threatens psychological well-being
3. Motivates change 3.


Wastes resources
4. Promotes organizational vitality 4.


Creates a negative climate


5. Helps individuals and groups establish identities 5.


Breaks down group cohesion
6. Serves as a safety valve to indicate problems 6. Can increase hostility and aggressive behaviours

Source: SMU 

Based on choice

Based on choice we have:

Approach – approach conflict which occurs when a person must choose between two positive and equally attractive alternatives. For example, choosing between a valued promotion in the organisation and a desirable new job with another firm.

Avoidance – avoidance conflict which occurs when a person must choose between two negative and equally unattractive alternatives. For example, being asked either to accept a job transfer to another town in an undesirable location or to have one’s employment with an organisation terminated.


Based on parties involved

Conflict can be intrapersonal (within the person) and no others are involved or Interpersonal. Let us now discuss these two types of conflicts in detail.

 Intrapersonal – A person may suffer intrapersonal conflict for various reasons. They are:

Cognitive conflict – An intellectual discomfort created by trying to achieve incompatible goals.

Affective conflict – Occurs when emotions are incompatible with the goals. For example, the need to smile at the customers after a sad event at home.

Inter-role conflict – Occurs when a person experiences conflict among the multiple roles in his or her life. For example, role of a mother and role of an executive secretary who gets home late or role of a union leader supported by the management and the role to defend a worker from abuse of the management.

Intra-role conflict – This is conflict within a single role. It often arises when a person receives conflicting message from role senders (the individuals who place expectations on the person) about how to perform a certain role. For example, the company policy defines high standards of ethics but the role occupant is asked by the manager to offer a bribe to get a sanction.

Person-role conflict – Occurs when an individual in a particular role is expected to perform behaviours that clash with his or her values. For example, salespeople may be officially required to offer the most expensive item in the sales line first to the customer, even when it is apparent that the customer does not want or cannot afford the item. This may conflict with the salesperson’s values or past experience, and he or she may experience person-role conflict.

Inter-individual or interpersonal conflict – When two individuals disagree about issues, actions, or goals and the outcomes are important to both, there is inter-individual conflict.

 Managing Conflict

There are five styles of managing conflict.


Conflict-handling Style


Appropriate Situation

Competing 1. When quick, decisive action is vital (e.g., emergencies).

2. On important issues where unpopular actions need implementing (e.g., cost cutting, enforcing unpopular rules, discipline).

3. On issues vital to company welfare when you know you are right.

4. Against people who take advantage of non-competitive behaviour.

Collaborating 1. To find an integrative solution when both sets of concerns are too important to be compromised.

2. When your objective is to learn.

3. To merge insights from people with different perspectives.

4. To gain commitment by incorporating concerns into a consensus.

5. To work through feelings that have interfered with a relationship.

Compromising 1. When goals are important but not worth the effort or potential disruption of more assertive modes.

2. When opponents with equal power are committed to mutually exclusive goals.

3. To achieve temporary settlements to complex issues.

4. To arrive at expedient solutions under time pressure.

5. 14. As a backup when collaboration or competition is unsuccessful.


Avoiding 1. When an issue is trivial or more important issues are pressing.

2. When you perceive no chance of satisfying your concerns.

3. When potential disruption outweighs the benefits of resolution.

4. To let people cool down and regain perspective.

5. When others can resolve the conflict more effectively.

6. When issues seem tangential or symptomatic of other issues.

Accommodating 1. When you find you are wrong to allow a better position to be heard, to learn, and to show your reasonableness.

2. When issues are more important to others than to you to satisfy others and maintain cooperation.

3. To build social credits for later issues.

4. To minimise loss when you are outmatched and losing.

5. When harmony and stability are especially important.

6. To allow employees to develop by learning from mistakes.

Source: SMU