Agriculture in India Notes Question Answer

Agriculture in India Notes Question Answer

Agriculture in India Notes Question Answer

For centuries, India has had the distinction of being an agrarian country, with approximately 70 percent of its population engaged in agriculture. Agriculture in India is not just a means of livelihood but also a way of life. Certainly, after independence, there have been changes in our agriculture. A country that once depended on other nations for grains has now become an exporter of grains. Two-thirds of India’s population is involved in agricultural activities. Agriculture not only provides food grains but also supplies raw materials to many industries.

Agriculture has been practiced in India since ancient times, but changes in technology and socio-cultural customs have brought many changes in farming methods. Initially, farming was done solely for subsistence. However, now industrial activities have been linked with farming. There are still many areas where people farm only for their livelihood. In fact, many reforms have been made in agriculture after independence. The use of science and technology in agriculture has given birth to the Green Revolution, White Revolution, Yellow Revolution, Blue Revolution, and Pink Revolution. This has significantly increased our production.

India has moved from subsistence farming to commercial agriculture and from extensive to intensive farming. Here, plantation agriculture, mixed farming, and dry farming are also prevalent. The main crops of Kharif season in India are rice, jowar, bajra, groundnut, and jute, while the main crops of Rabi season are wheat, chickpeas, and mustard. India has made unprecedented progress in the production of both food and cash crops. It is a world leader in the production of jute, sugarcane, tea, etc. Various crops in India require different geographical conditions and circumstances.

Despite considerable progress, per hectare production is still low compared to other countries. Due to globalization in the economy, India faces many challenges. Some major problems for Indian agriculture include production stability, high cost of agricultural inputs, soil fertility decline, scarcity of fresh groundwater, climate change, globalization, economic liberalization, food security, and farmers’ suicides. Indian agriculture still needs to adapt to new scenarios and make gains from it.

Agriculture in India Notes Question Answer

Question 1: What is meant by plantation agriculture? List three characteristics.
Answer: In this type of agriculture, a single crop is grown on a large scale. The main crops of plantation agriculture are tea, rubber, coffee, sugarcane, and banana. Characteristics:
(i) Plantation agriculture is done on large areas.
(ii) It requires more capital and labor.
(iii) The crops obtained from this agriculture are used as raw materials in industries.
(iv) Instead of annual crops, this agriculture involves planting long-lasting or continuous-growing plants or trees.

Question 2: Write the names of industries that are based on agricultural raw materials.
Answer: Industries based on agricultural raw materials are jute industry, cotton textile industry, silk industry, processing industry, cottage industry, animal husbandry, poultry farming, etc.

Question 3: After independence, what steps have the central and state governments taken to improve the condition of agriculture?
Answer: The central and state governments have taken the following steps to improve Indian agriculture:

  1. Consolidation of land holdings has been done.
  2. The zamindari system has been abolished.
  3. High-yielding variety seeds have been used.
  4. Pests and diseases have been controlled.
  5. New irrigation schemes have been started.
  6. Various techniques are being used to increase production.

Question 4: How did the partition of India in 1947 affect the jute industry?
Answer: In 1947, India was divided into two parts, India and Pakistan. Most of the jute industries were located in West Bengal, but most of the jute-producing areas went to Bangladesh (then East Pakistan). This led to a shortage of raw materials. As a result, India had to spend foreign exchange to obtain raw materials.

  1. From 1947 to 1971, Pakistan gave tough competition to India. After the creation of Bangladesh in 1971, India became the second-largest exporter of jute.

Question 5: What steps has the government taken for the revival of the jute industry?
Answer: The government has taken the following steps for the revival of the jute industry:

  1. Research on high-yielding seeds like PRO 7835 by the Jute Research Institute.
  2. Improved plant production has been started.
  3. The use of chemical fertilizers and encouragement of scientific methods are being promoted.

Question 6: How do farmers benefit from biotechnology? How is it helpful in a sustainable environment?
Answer: Farmers benefit from biotechnology in the following ways:

  1. It can increase per-acre production of various crops and genetically modify them.
  2. It helps crops resist pests and diseases.
  3. It reduces the use of pesticides and biocides.
  4. Genetically modified seeds require less water.
  5. This technology reduces production costs.
  6. It benefits both rich and poor farmers and keeps the environment safe and sustainable.

Question 7: What has been the impact of globalization on Indian agriculture? Describe.
Answer: Globalization is a new trend aimed at integrating the economy with other countries’ economies. The impact of globalization on Indian agriculture:

  1. Indian farmers have now entered a new industrial environment where they must compete with farmers from other countries in terms of production and quality.
  2. Utilizing favorable climatic conditions and advanced tools and skilled labor, we need to produce items that can hold a place in the global market.

Question 8: India has the largest area under rice cultivation, yet it is not the largest producer in the world. List the reasons.
Answer:

  1. In India, the traditional method of planting rice seedlings by hand is used.
  2. Rice cultivation in India is done manually, whereas in China, machines are used. Therefore, per-acre yield in China is higher than in India.
  3. Labor-intensive and time-consuming processes result in lower per-acre rice production in India.
  4. The use of chemical fertilizers and advanced seeds is still limited in India.
  5. In many places in India, rice is still grown as subsistence farming, while in countries like China and Korea, it is done as commercial agriculture.

Question 9: Describe the geographical conditions and producing states for cotton production in India.
Answer: Cotton is a fiber crop used to make cotton textiles. It is a major commercial crop in India, considered the birthplace of cotton. 21% of the world’s cotton-growing area is in India, producing 8% of the world’s cotton.
Geographical conditions for cotton production:

  • Cotton is a tropical crop requiring high temperatures and significant rainfall.
  • Temperature: Cotton needs temperatures between 20°C to 30°C for optimal growth. It requires 200 frost-free days. Frost and hail damage the crop.
  • Sea breeze is very beneficial for cotton plants.
  • Rainfall: Cotton plants require 100 to 150 cm of rainfall, which should be slow and continuous. Water should not accumulate in the roots of the plants.
  • Cotton thrives in lava-formed soils, requiring sloping land with black soil.
  • Labor: Cotton cultivation requires a large number of cheap laborers.

Question 10: Explain the difference between intensive and extensive farming by giving two examples each.
Answer: The fundamental difference between intensive and extensive farming is the amount of production per unit area of land.
Extensive Farming:

  • Predominantly practiced in countries like the United States, Canada, and the former Soviet Union.
  • Involves large areas of land with lower labor and capital input per unit area.

Intensive Farming:

  • Predominantly practiced in countries like Japan.
  • Involves smaller areas of land with higher labor and capital input per unit area.

Question 11: If cotton cultivation fails continuously for several years, how will India provide clothing to more than a billion people?
Answer: If cotton cultivation fails continuously for several years, inflation and unemployment will rise, and urbanization will increase. In such a situation, India will become more dependent on foreign countries. India will have to import textiles. Instead of cotton textiles, people will have to use terricot, silk, silky, terrylene, etc.

Question 12: Why are commercial crops known as cash crops?
Answer: Commercial crops are known as cash crops because most of their production is sold in the market to earn money.

Question 13: How will climate change affect agriculture in India? Describe any two situations.
Answer: Climate change in India can lead to an increase in temperature by 2 to 3 degrees Celsius. There may be a rise in sea levels, more intense cyclones, and unpredictable rainfall. These changes will negatively impact rice and wheat production. Increased winter temperatures will particularly affect wheat production in northern India. Rising sea levels and increased frequency of cyclones in coastal areas will also affect rice production.

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