Climate Notes Question Answer in English

Climate Notes Question Answer in English

Climate Notes Question Answer in English

India is a country of monsoons. Various factors like distance from the equator, distance from the sea, and mountain ranges affect India’s climate. The Himalayas act as a climate divider. Due to its geographical location, India experiences seasonal diversity. India has four major seasons: winter, summer, the advancing southwest monsoon season, and the retreating northeast monsoon season. Festivals in India are celebrated with the changing seasons and are indeed related to them. Rainfall distribution in India is highly uneven. The places with the highest and the lowest rainfall in the world are in India. The spatial variations of rainfall in India can be shown as follows:

1. Areas of high rainfall (more than 200 cm)
2. Areas of normal rainfall (100-200 cm)
3. Areas of low rainfall (60-100 cm)
4. Areas of insufficient rainfall (less than 60 cm)

The question arises, what is the relationship between weather and our lives? Weather affects our social and cultural life. India is an agriculture-based country, and economic activities in agriculture depend entirely on the weather cycle. All our activities are related to the seasons. Global warming has had significant political, social, and economic impacts, affecting every aspect of our lives and our lifestyle.

Climate Notes Question Answer in English

Question 1. Explain the effects of global warming in India with examples. What are its causes? Answer: Global warming is considered a severe environmental issue today. Its effects are as follows: Melting polar regions and mountain glaciers due to global warming pose a threat of rising sea levels. Geographical changes and the biosphere are significantly affected by global warming. Increasing Earth temperatures threaten biodiversity. The risk of natural disasters rises due to global warming. The fertility of life decreases, adversely affecting crops. Global warming poses a severe threat to human health, increasing the risk of waterborne and insect-borne diseases due to climate changes.

Question 2. Explain the difference between climate and weather. Answer: Sunshine, wind, rain, and snow are different forms of weather. The weather depends on various factors such as the intensity of the sunshine, the moisture in the air, the presence of clouds, the speed and direction of the wind, etc. The weather significantly impacts our lives, making it very important to us. The term “climate” is used to describe the condition of the atmosphere at a specific location. This term is closely related to weather. Climate is used for larger land areas and over long periods, whereas weather is used for shorter periods and smaller areas. For instance, it is incorrect to say the Earth’s weather was warmer 30,000 years ago compared to today, but it is correct to say the Earth’s climate was warmer 30,000 years ago compared to today.

Question 3. How do winds and their directions affect the climate? Explain with an example. Answer: Monsoon winds change their direction with the seasons. Our knowledge of the origin of monsoons is still incomplete. Dry trade winds blow north and south of the equator. A large part of India is in the belt of the northeast trade winds. Their effect is visible in winter, but due to specific seasonal phenomena, special conditions develop in the Indian subcontinent and the northern Indian Ocean in summer. The low equatorial pressure belt shifts northward in summer, causing the southeast trade winds to cross the equator. Upon moving north, their direction becomes southwesterly. During these times, the low pressure in most parts of India attracts these winds, resulting in the formation of the southwest monsoon. These winds are filled with moisture.

Question 4. Define monsoon. Identify the main reason for their movement opposite to trade winds. Answer: The term “monsoon” is derived from the Arabic word “mawsim,” meaning season. The seasonal change in wind direction during the year is called the monsoon. In India, the retreating monsoon season occurs in October and November. This season has three main characteristics:

  1. The low-pressure trough of the monsoon weakens, replaced by high pressure.
  2. The monsoon’s influence over Indian territories shrinks.
  3. The direction of surface winds starts reversing. The sky clears up, and temperatures rise again.

Question 5. List four characteristics of the winter season. Answer: Winter in India spans December, January, and February. During this period, high pressure dominates the northern plains. Northeasterly trade winds blow over most parts of the country, moving from land to sea. This season remains dry. Temperatures decrease from south to north. Winter days are generally normal, but nights are cold. A weak high-pressure system develops in the northeastern regions, and winds blow outward at speeds of 3 to 5 km/h. This season is pleasant and enjoyable, characterized by clear skies, low temperatures and humidity, cool gentle breezes, and rainless days. Occasionally, weak cyclonic disturbances, known as western disturbances originating from the Mediterranean Sea, cause light rainfall in northern India, beneficial for the rabi crop, particularly wheat. Sometimes, after these disturbances, cold waves follow, causing temperatures to drop significantly.

Question 6. List four main characteristics of the summer season. Answer: The summer season lasts from March to May. In March, the sun’s movement northward increases temperatures from south to north. Asian landmasses become centers of low pressure. In March, temperatures on the Deccan Plateau rise to 38°C, and in northwestern India, they reach 45°C to 48°C. In May, due to high temperatures, low pressure extends from the Thar Desert to Chotanagpur. Moist winds from the Arabian Sea move towards these low-pressure areas, causing local storms, heavy rain, and hail. In this season, dry winds called “loo” blow in the northwestern dry regions, and dust storms sometimes occur in the evening.

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