Constitutional Values and Political System in India

Constitutional Values and Political System in India

In the context of a state or nation, the meaning of a constitution is a set of fundamental principles, basic rules, and established traditions. It defines and regulates the structure, powers, and functions of the major institutions under the different aspects of the state and the branches of government – the executive, the legislature, and the judiciary. It also provides for the rights and freedoms of citizens. The constitution of our country, India, is the largest in the world. The rights and duties are beautifully described in our constitution. According to the Indian Constitution, the people of India ultimately hold supreme power. Even the President and the Prime Minister, occupying the highest positions in the nation, cannot act arbitrarily. They are accountable to the public.

The constitution of India defines the basic objectives of the system established by it. It establishes a sovereign, democratic, socialist, and secular republic in India. The constitution of a country fulfills many objectives. It sets forth ideals that form the basis of the country in which we aspire to live as citizens. The constitution is like a set of principles, rules, and procedures that have the consent of all individuals in the country. Some central constitutional values inherent in the Indian Constitution are expressed in its various articles and provisions. The preamble of the constitution includes such fundamental values and philosophies on which the entire constitution is based. These are: sovereignty, socialism, secularism, democracy, republican nature, justice, liberty, equality, fraternity, human dignity, and unity and integrity of the nation.

Constitutional values are also prevalent in all major features of the Indian Constitution, such as a written constitution, fundamental rights, directive principles of state policy, fundamental duties, single citizenship, universal adult suffrage, federalism, and the parliamentary system of governance. India is a federal state because it has a written constitution and a dual-level government at the central and state levels. There is a division of powers between the central government and the state governments, and there is an independent judiciary. The constitution has intentionally made the central government more powerful than the state governments.

Both at the central and state levels, India has a parliamentary system of governance. The President is the head of state and a nominal executive. The Prime Minister, as the head of the Council of Ministers, is the chief of the actual executive. There is a close relationship between the executive and the legislature, and the Council of Ministers is collectively accountable to the parliament.

Constitutional Values and Political System in India

Question 1. What is the meaning of a constitution?
Answer: The constitution is a collection of fundamental laws of each country. In the context of the state and nation, the constitution means a set of fundamental principles, basic rules, and established traditions. It defines, clarifies, and regulates the structure, powers, and functions of major institutions under the various aspects of the state and the three branches of government – the executive, the legislature, and the judiciary. It also provides for the rights and freedoms of citizens and clarifies the relationships between citizens and the state and government.

Question 2. What do you understand by the term value?
Answer: A value is a concept that is essential and whose adherence is desirable for the existence of human society.

Question 3. Name two important constitutional values included in the preamble of the Indian Constitution. Why do you consider these values to be very important?
Answer: The values expressed in the preamble are articulated as the objectives of the constitution. These are: sovereignty, socialism, secularism, democracy, republican nature of the Indian state, justice, equality, fraternity, human dignity, and unity and integrity of the nation.

Question 4. Which constitutional values are reflected in the directive principles of state policy?
Answer: The directive principles of state policy reflect constitutional values such as social and economic equality, elimination of social discrimination, and international peace.

Question 5. Why is the Indian judiciary called an integrated judiciary?
Answer: Although there is the Supreme Court at the national level, High Courts at the state level, and subordinate courts at the district and lower levels, all these are parts of the same hierarchy. The Supreme Court is at the top of this hierarchy.

Question 6. What is the meaning of single or unitary citizenship?
Answer: Single citizenship means that citizens of a country have only one citizenship. In many countries, like the USA, people have two types of citizenship: one of the entire country and the other of the respective state. But in India, people have single citizenship. That is, the states of India do not grant separate citizenship.

Question 7. What kind of relationship exists between the executive and the legislature in a parliamentary system?
Answer: In a parliamentary system, there is a close relationship between the Council of Ministers, headed by the Prime Minister, and the legislature, i.e., the parliament. The Council of Ministers is collectively accountable to the parliament. If the Lok Sabha passes a vote of no confidence against the Council of Ministers, then the entire Council has to resign.

Question 8. Why is the President of India called a nominal executive?
Answer: The President of India, who is the head of state, is a nominal and formal executive. In principle, all executive powers are vested in the President by the constitution. But in practice, these powers are exercised not by the President but by the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers, headed by the Prime Minister, is the real executive. The President cannot do anything without the advice of the Council of Ministers. The electoral college that elects the President is composed of members of parliament. If the parliament passes an impeachment motion against the President, he has to resign.

Question 9. What is the meaning of collective responsibility?
Answer: Collective responsibility means that the responsibility of each minister is the responsibility of the entire Council of Ministers. If even one ministry is criticized, the whole Council of Ministers is considered responsible.

Question 10. How do both houses of parliament control the Council of Ministers?
Answer: Both houses of parliament control the Council of Ministers by asking questions and supplementary questions about the policies, programs, and actions of the government. They can bring adjournment motions and call attention motions. No bill presented by the Council of Ministers can become law until it is approved by the parliament. The annual budget is also passed by the parliament.

Comments

No comments yet. Why don’t you start the discussion?

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *