Impact of British Rule in india History Notes Questions and Answers

Impact of British Rule in india History Notes Questions and Answers

In the 18th century, a significant event occurred in England known as the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution in Britain increased the demand for raw materials in their factories. They also wanted to sell their finished goods in India. The British came to India for trade and gradually established control over the entire country with the help of their new administrative policies.

Their land revenue policies extracted large amounts of revenue from the farmers. They also gradually introduced English education. England succeeded in controlling trade with India and established the East India Company in 1600. Gradually, the company began to expand its trade on Indian soil. The Battle of Plassey in 1757 is considered the cause of British political dominance in India. British rule had a profound impact on the political and social life of Indians.

The Industrial Revolution helped English merchants accumulate substantial capital from countries like Prussia, Africa, and America. With the advent of industrialization in England, the textile industry became prominent. The massive import of machine-made products from England created a crisis for Indian industries, as British goods were sold at cheap prices.

This change had a significant impact on the Indian handloom and weaving industries, which faced unequal competition. Another major economic impact of British policies in India was the introduction of commercial crops such as tea, coffee, indigo, opium, cotton, jute, sugarcane, and oilseeds. The commercialization of agriculture and the rapid transfer of ownership increased the number of landless laborers in the country. Consequently, a large number of merchants, traders, and brokers exploited the farmers in this situation.

Rise of a new middle class

A major impact of British rule in India was the rise of a new middle class. Most of these people worked as agents and intermediaries for British merchants. Some of them received an English education and formed a new elite class. The arrival of the British in India brought many changes to society. When the British came to India, they brought with them new ideas of freedom, equality, liberty, and human rights from Europe’s Renaissance, Reformation movements, and various revolutions. The efforts of social reformers resulted in better education, career opportunities, and public employment for women.

The British came to India with the intent of making significant profits. They wanted to educate the Indians and modernize them to adequately consume their goods. They wanted India to become a part of the progressive world of modern science. They aimed to make their rule in India permanent.

Therefore, the British showed great interest in introducing English education in India. Educating Indians in the English language was part of their strategy. They used education as a tool to strengthen their political authority in the country. The British devised numerous strategies to enforce their rule effectively. British economic policies had a highly adverse impact on farmers and artisans.

As a result of discontent with British rule, a series of resistance movements against the British emerged. The revolts of Sanyasis and Fakirs, the Faraizi Movement, the Wahhabi Movement, and the Santhal Rebellion are examples of resistance against British rule.

Impact of British Rule in india History Notes Questions and Answers

Question 1: Identify two reasons for the protest movements by farmers and tribal groups in India.

Answer: Two reasons for the protest movements by farmers and tribal groups in India were the exploitative policies of the British, heavy taxation, high revenue rates on farmers, various extortion policies, and the expansion of British control over tribal lands.

Question 2: Why did the British come to India? Give at least two reasons.

Answer: The British came to India for raw materials for Britain and to expand the market for their finished goods.

Question 3: What were the two main methods adopted by the British for the annexation of native states?

Answer: The British annexed native states through the policy of merger and the subsidiary alliance.

Question 4: For what two reasons did the British build an extensive railway network in India?

Answer: The British aimed to connect villages to trading ports and industrial cities to easily and quickly transport raw materials, especially cash crops, to the ports.

Question 5: How did the British policy of “Divide and Rule” affect the national interests of the country?

Answer: The British policy of “Divide and Rule” divided the country on religious grounds. Through this policy, the British incited conflict between Hindus and Muslims to maintain their rule.


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