Physiography of India Notes Question Answer

Physiography of India Notes Question Answer

Physiography of India Notes Question Answer

India is a vast country, approximately 20 times larger than England, and is the seventh-largest country in the world in terms of area. India is situated between 8°4′ and 37°6′ northern latitudes and 68°7′ and 97°25′ eastern longitudes. The land boundary of India is 15,200 kilometers long, and it has a coastline of 6,100 kilometers. The total area of India is 328,000 square kilometers. India is located at the top of the Indian Ocean. India can be divided into six physical regions: the Northern Himalayas, the Northern Plains, the Peninsular Plateau, the Indian Desert, the Coastal Plains, and the Islands.

Since ancient times, it has had good trade relations with Asia and Africa. India lies within both the tropical and subtropical zones. The latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the country is approximately 30°-30°. Due to this extensive latitudinal and longitudinal range, India shows diversity in many aspects. The Northern Plains primarily extend across the states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal.

The soil here is rich in nutrients, making it suitable for growing various crops such as wheat, rice, sugarcane, vegetables, and fruits. The Peninsular Plateau stretches from the Aravalli Range to the southern tip of India. It is a highland composed of old and metamorphic rocks. For instance, there is a two-hour difference in sunrise and sunset times between the eastern and western extremities of India.

The local time at 82.5° east longitude is considered the standard time for the entire country. India has two main groups of islands. There are 204 islands in the Bay of Bengal, known as the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and 43 islands in the Arabian Sea, known as the Lakshadweep Islands. India has two types of rivers: Himalayan rivers and Peninsular rivers.

All the rivers flowing into the Bay of Bengal form deltas, while the Narmada and Tapti rivers flowing into the Arabian Sea form estuaries. The water of Indian rivers is used in various ways, but unfortunately, humans are polluting it for their selfish interests. Industrialization and urbanization play a significant role in this. It has become essential to protect rivers from pollution, and every citizen of India must contribute to this effort.

Physiography of India Notes Question Answer

Question 1: What is the significance of India’s location in terms of international trade routes?

Answer: India is located at the tip of the Indian Ocean. Its southern part extends into the Indian Ocean, dividing the ocean into two parts. India’s position is intermediate in the Indian Ocean. To its west is the Suez route and to the southwest is the Cape of Good Hope route. To the east is the Singapore route. All these sea routes pass through India while traveling from west to east and vice versa. Therefore, India’s position is significant in terms of international trade routes.

Question 2: Why is there not much difference in the duration of day and night in Kanyakumari, while this difference is greater in Kashmir?

Answer: The southern tip of India, Kanyakumari, is located near the equator, resulting in a maximum difference of 45 minutes between the duration of day and night. However, as one moves towards the poles, this difference increases. In Delhi, it becomes approximately 4 hours, and at the northern tip of India, it increases to 5 hours. In Kashmir, the effect of the Earth’s axis tilt of 23.5° is clearly visible. At the equator, the tilt of the axis has no effect.

Question 3: What do you understand by Indian Standard Time (IST)? What is its significance?

Answer: Indian Standard Time refers to the time that is accepted across the entire country. The 82°30′ east longitude, which passes through the middle of the country, is considered the standard meridian. The local time at this longitude is recognized throughout the country. There is a two-hour difference in local time between the eastern and western parts of our country. The standard time ensures the proper functioning of air services, rail services, and many commercial operations, bringing convenience and uniformity to their schedules.

Question 4: Describe the features of the Ganga-Brahmaputra Delta.


  1. The Ganga-Brahmaputra Delta is the largest delta in the world.
  2. This region has abundant water and is highly fertile.
  3. After merging with the Ganges, the Brahmaputra River slows down significantly, creating numerous islands of alluvial soil in its stream. The river water splits into many channels, and the size of the delta keeps increasing.
  4. During high tide, seawater mixes with river water, causing the lower part of the delta to become swampy.

Question 5: What is the difference between a plateau and a plain?

Answer: Plateau:

  1. A plateau is a highland with a flat surface, surrounded by low-lying areas.
  2. The slope at the edges can be steep.
  3. The population density is low, and minerals are found in greater quantities than crops. An example is the famous Deccan Plateau in southern India.


  1. A plain is a flat and fertile area formed by the alluvium brought by rivers.
  2. Its height remains up to 300 meters above sea level.
  3. The population density, trade, and transportation facilities are higher. An example is the Northern Plain of India.


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